LEGION XXIV MA
TIME-LINE CRONOLOGY OF
BYZANTINE ROME AND RELATED HISTORY
A Compilation assembled to more easily comprehend the History of Ancient Rome and its relationship to other Events in Ancient World History from 550 AD to 1699 AD
Last Updated on January 22, 2013
ROMAN "BYZANTINE" EMPIRE PERIOD - 550 AD to 1453 AD
550 Badvila establishes Ostrogothic power in Italy with Rome as capitol
558 Dome of Hagia Sophia Church collapses during an earthquake
562 Third Purge of Pagans from Administration of Rome
562 Dec-24, Justinian dedicates restored dome of Hagia Sophia Church in Constantinople, after its collapse in 558 due to an earthquake.
565-578 JUSTIN-II - Emperor
578-582 Tiberius-II CONSTANINUS - Emperor
582-602 MAURICE - Emperor
c.600 Concept and use of the numeral "Zero" comes into use in India
c.600 Traditional Beginning of the so-called Middle Ages - ending about 1400 AD with the beginning of the Renaissance Period
c.600 Traditional Beginning of the so-called Dark Ages - ending about 1000 AD - Followed by the so-called High Middle Ages
602-610 PHOCAS - Emperor
610-641 HERACLIUS - Emperor
622 The "Hegira", the flight of Muhammad from Mecca. The traditional date on which the Islamic calendar is based, (abbreviation "A.H. Anno Hegirae)
632 Muhammad dies.
639 Muslim armies take control of Syria, Egypt, Jordon and Holy Land,
641 Constantine-III & Heracleonas - Co-Emperors
641 HERACLEONAS - Emperor
641-668 Constans-II POGONATUS - Emperor
642 Great Library at Alexandria destroyed by invasion of the Muslims
654 Bronze remains of the Colossus of Rhodes, which had lain for 880 years since 226BC when it was felled by an earthquake, are carried away by Arab invaders
668-685 CONSTANTINE-IV - Emperor
678 Use of Greek Fire documented
685-695 Justinian-II RHINOTMETUS - Emperor
c.688 Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem completed with assistance of Byzantines
691 Dome of the Rock dedicated, followed by the Al-Aqsa Mosque in 715
695-698 LEONTIUS - Emperor
698-705 Tiberius-III - Emperor
705-711 Justinian-II (restored) - Emperor
711-713 PHILLIPICUS Bardanes - Emperor
713-715 ANASTASIUS-II - Emperor
716-717 THEODOSIUS-III - Emperor
717-741 LEO-III (the Isaurian or the Syrian) - Emperor
741-775 Constantine-V COPRONYMUS - Emperor
742 Charlemagne is born
775-780 LEO-IV (the Khazar) - Emperor
780-797 CONSTANTINE-VI - Emperor
787 Second Council of Nicaea decrees religious icons to be venerated, but not worshiped
793 First Viking Raid on England at Monastery of Lindesfarne
797-802 IRENE - Emperess
800 Charlemagne of France becomes Emperor of the West - Schism arises between Eastern & Western Churches
c. 800 Mayan civilization in Central America reaches its zenith
802-811 NICEPHORUS-I - Emperor
802-839 Egbert, first of the Saxons and Danes, rules over Britain
802-1066 Saxons and Danes rule over England and Great Britain
811 STAURACIUS - Emperor
811-813 MICHAEL-I - Emperor
813-820 LEO-V (the Armenian) - Emperor
820-829 MICHAEL-II (the Stammerer) - Emperor
829-842 THEOPHILUS - Emperor
837 Halley's Comet makes spectacular appearance in closest known approach - only 3.2 million miles from Earth
842-867 MICHAEL-III (the Drunkard) - Emperor
867-886 BASIL-I (the Macedonian) - Emperor
886-912 LEO-VI (the Wise or the Philosopher) - Emperor
c. 890 "Berserkers" of Norway
912-913 ALEXANDER - Emperor
913-919 Constantine-VII PORPHYROGENITUS - Emperor
919-944 Romanus-I LECAPENUS - Emperor
944-959 Constantine-VII (restored) - Emperor
c. 850 Gunpowder developed in China and used in firecrackers and small rockets. It will be the only explosive in wide use until the mid-1800's, when it was replaced by nitroglycerine based explosives.
924-939 Athelstan, Son of Edward ("the Elder", Saxon-Dane) rules over Britain
959-963 ROMANUS-II - Emperor
960 Viking Eric the Red sets-out across the North Atlantic in "long-boats" from Scandinavia to settle Iceland
962 Holy Roman Empire (962-1648) (Germany-Austria-N.Italy) comes into being with coronation of German King Otto-I. It was intended as a "New" Roman Empire to defend the Christian Faith in the face of Muslim invasion and doctrine.
963 Basil-II BULGAROKTONOS - Emperor
963-969 Nicephorus-II PHOCAS - Emperor
969-976 John-I TZIMISCES - Emperor
975 Original "London" Bridge opened. Built of wood, it and its stone replacement of 1209, was the only bridge over the Thames River until the Westminster Bridge was opened in 1750.
976-1025 Basil-II (restored) - Emperor
c. 982 Norse Chieftian, Eric the Red discovers Greenland and in c.986 establishes colony of 500 there
985 Eric the Red leaves Iceland under penalty of death to settle in Greenland
c. 987 Toltec Empire founded in Yucatan, formally Mayan territory
c.1000 Traditional End of the so-called Dark Ages and beginning of the High Middle Ages
c.1000 - 1400 Traditionally considered to be the Time Period of the High Middle Ages
c. 1000 POPULATIONS - Byzantine Empire = 20 million - Constantinople = 900,000 - Holy Roman Empire = 35 million - Cairo = 125,000 - Cordova (Spain) = 450,000 - Baghdad = 125,000 - Angkor (Cambodia) = 200,000 - Kaifeng (China) = 400,000 - Kyoto (Japan) = 175,000 - India Kingdoms = 50 million - Viking Kingdoms = 1-2 million
c. 1000 First settlement of Vikings in Newfoundland.
c. 1000 King Oloff of Norway declares that all lands under his control, including Iceland, would be officially Christian.
c. 1000 Italian musician Aquido Alvereso institutes the five parallel line music staff
c. 1000 Alcan devises early version of gunpowder in China for use in fireworks
c. 1000 First known vision aid "Reading Stone" a glass sphere which magnified when placed over text, comes into use.
1001 Viking Leif the Lucky lands in Newfoundland from Greenland, 500 years before Columbus
c. 1009 Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem destroyed on order of Al-Hakim, Caliph of Egypt-Syria & Palestine
1016 Danish take control of England after Battle of Ashington in Essex.
1025 Basil-II dies
1027 Church of Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem rebuilt after being destroyed in 1009 by Al-Hakim
1025-1028 CONSTANTINE-VIII - Emperor
1028-1034 Zoe and Romanus-III Argyrus - Co-Emperors
1034-1041 Zoe and Michael-IV (the Papthlagonian) - Co-Emperors
1041-1042 Zoe and Michael-V Calaphates - Co-Emperors
1042-1066 Edward ("the Confessor", Saxon-Dane) rules over Britain
1042-1050 Zoe THEODORA and Constantine-IX MONOMACHUS - Co-Emperors
1050-1055 Theodora and Constantine-IX - Co-Emperors
1054 Patriarch of Constantinople and the Pope in Rome excommunicate each other causing the Great Schism between the Byzantine (Eastern) and Latin Churches
1054 Supernovae (exploding star) in the constellation Taurus the Bull, observed by Chinese astronomers as a "Guest Star" which is now observed as the Crab Nebulae
1055-1056 Theodora - Emperor
1056-1057 Michael-VI STRATIOTICUS - Emperor
1057-1059 Isaac-I COMNENUS - Emperor
1059-1067 CONSTANTINE-X Ducas - Emperor
1066 Oct 14 Battle of Hastings, (East Sussex, England) in which William the Conqueror leads the House of Normandy to victory and rules 1066 to 1087 as the first of the three Norman Kings
1066-1135 House of Normandy (William I, II, Henry I) rules over England and Great Britain
1067-1068 MICHAEL-VII Ducas (Parapinaces) - Emperor
1068-1071 Romanus-IV DIOGENES - Emperor
1071-1078 MICHAEL-VII Ducas (restored) - Emperor
1078-1081 Nicephorus-III BOTANIATES - Emperor
c. 1080 Traditional dating for the Bayeux Tapestry
1081-1118 ALEXIUS-I Comnenus - Emperor
1091 Custom of Ash Wednesday (using ashes of palm leaves) at the beginning of the Lenten Season instituted by Pope Gregory
1095 First Crusade organized to gain control of the Holy Land from the Muslims
1096-1099 First Christian Crusade to the Holy Land
1097 1, July - Battle of Dorylaeum (Eskisehir western Turkey) ambush by Turks routed by the Christian forces of Duke Bohemond, Duke Godfery de Buillon and Count Toulouse, during the First Crusade to restore the Holy Land to Christian control
1098 28, June - Battle of Antioch "The Orontes" - Crusaders of First Crusade, under Duke Bohemond defeat Moslem forces of Kerboga after capturing Antioch, then being besieged and then rallying to victory.
1099 June 9 - July 18 Siege of Jerusalem by Christian Crusaders (11,000) under Godfrey de Buillon, take control of Jerusalem and defeat the Emir al Afdal (50,000) at Ascalon to end the First Crusade - Al-Aqsa Mosque becomes headquarters for the Knights Templar
c. 1100 Mayan civilization in Central America in decline toward collapse
c. 1100 Playing cards in use in Asia
c. 1105 First table fork introduced into use in Italy
c. 1109 Second (present) Church of Holy Sepulchre, in Jeruselem completed
1118-1143 JOHN-II Comnenus - Emperor
1131 Death of Omar Khayyam (1048-1131) Persian poet and mathematician
1135-1154 House of Blois, (Stephen, grandson of William I) rules over England and Great Britain
1143-1180 MANUEL-I Comnenus - Emperor
1144 Christians lose control of Edessa to the Turks
1147-1149 Second Crusade which ends in dismal failure
1150 Returning Crusaders introduce sugar into Europe where it becomes favored over honey.
c. 1150 Chinese seaman and caravan leaders use crude magnetic compasses for navigation
c. 1151 Iceland issues the first fire and plague insurance
1154-1399 House of Plantagenet (Henry II, Richard I, John, Henry III, Edward I, II, III, Richard II) rules over England and Great Britain
1160 The Arabs expell the Normans from North Africa
1169 The first classes at Oxford take place
1171 Foundation laid for the Bell Tower of Piza
1174 Architech Bonnano Pisano constructs a 177 foot high bell tower (campanili) that will become known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa
c. 1175 First reference to use of a magnetic compass for navigation
1180-1183 ALEXIUS-II Comnenus - Emperor
1183-1185 ANDRONICUS-I Comnenus - Emperor
1184 Cyprus acheives independance from the Byzantine Empire
1185 Shogun Era begins in Japan, taking control from Emperors and ruling until the 1860's
1185-1195 ISAAC-II Angelus - Emperor
1187 Saladin defeats Crusaders at Horn of Hittin and captures Jerusalem and most Crusader States for Islam
1189-1192 Third Crusade led by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick-I Barbarossa, Phillip-II of France & Richard-I (The Lion Heart - Coeur de Lion) of England; fails to recapture Jerusalem
1191 Third Crusaders under Richard,I "Lion Hearted" ambushed by Saracens of Salidin at Arsuf near Tel Aviv, defeat the Saracens and conclude a treaty in 1192 granting rights to Christian pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem.
1193 Licensed prostitution begins in Japan
1194 Chichen Itza, the great Mayan City in Mexico is abandoned
1194 91 years of Norman rule in Italy ends when Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI takes control of Sicily and southern Italy
1195-1203 ALEXIUS-III Angelus - Emperor
1198 Venice becomes the commercial capitol of Europe
1198 Order of Teutonic Knights (Knights of St.Mary Hospital and Teutons) established in Jeruselem for German Nobles in preparation for 4th Crusade
1199 Richard the Lion Heart is killed in France and his brother, John-I becomes King of England
1201 A swarm of earthquakes kills more than 1 million people in Egypt, Syria and middle-east in the deadliest earthquake event in recorded history.
1202 Knowledge of Arabic Numerals and "Zero" reach Europe
1202-1204 Fourth Crusade was diverted to benefit Venice and the Crusaders take control of Constantinople
1203-1204 Isaac-II (restored) and Alexius-IV Angelus - Co-Emperors
1204 Crusaders attack Constantinople and the Latin Empire of Constantinople (1204-1261) created by leaders of the Fourth Crusade. The Schism of 1054 between the Byzantine (East) and Latin (West) Churches becomes final.
1204-1222 THEODORE-I Lascaris - Emperor
1209 Second "London Bridge" (England) is completed as the first masonry structure across the Thames River. It carried houses and a Chapel, which were removed from 1756-1762 and was the only bridge over the Thames River until the Westminster Bridge of 1750. The bridge was replaced in 1831 by the stone structure that was dismantled (1968) and moved to Havasue City, Arizona
1211 Ghengis Khan's mongol hords invade China - Mongol rule complete by 1261
1212 Children's Crusade results in most being sold as slaves or dying of hunger or disease
1215 Magna Carta (lat. great charter) signed by King John and rebelling nobles of England at Runnymede, ensuring constitutional rights between the King, his Lords and other subjects. It was revised and re-issued in 1225, and this version became the basis of modern civil liberties, and been termed the "Birth Certificate of Constitutional Government".
1217 Cambridge University founded
c. 1217 Ghengis Khan conquers Persia
1217-1221 Fifth Crusade aimed at Egypt is unsucessful
1222-1254 JOHN-III Vatatzes or Ducas - Emperor
1223 Mongols (80,000) route the Russian Army (40,000) at Battle of Kalka River in the southern Ukraine
1224 Chichen Itza abandoned by the Toltecs, city resettled by Uicil-Abnal people, later known as the Itza
1224 St.Francis of Assai creates the first living Christmas scene to explain the Nativity to his followers
1225 Cotton manufactured in Spain and it becomes a competitor to wool and linen
1227 Ghenges Kahn dies and his empire is divided among his three sons
1228-1229 Sixth Crusade short-lived and a failure - Crusaders are granted rule of Jerusalem for 10 years - Rival Islamic dynasties fight over the City in following decades
1233 Pope Gregory IX establishes the Inquisition staffed by Dominican friers
1241 April 11 - Battle of Mohi (Sajo River 90 miles n/e of Budapest) during Mongol Invasion of Europe 1237-1242, when the Hungarian army was destroyed and eastern Europe, from the Baltic to the Danube, came under Mongol control.
1244 The Itza abandon Chichen Itza in Yucatan for unknown reasons
1250 Feb. 8-11 - 7th Crusade (1248-1254) collapses when the army, weakened by scurvy, is defeated by Egyptian forces at the Battle of Fariskur-Mansura, north of Cairo
c. 1251 Crusaders introduce the decimal number system into Europe; but it is not widely adopted
1254-1258 THEODORE-II Lascaris - Emperor
1528 Henry-VIII authorizes printing and distribution of the Bible in English
1258-1261 JOHN-IV Lascaris - Emperor
1259-1282 MICHAEL-VIII Palaeologus - Emperor
1260 Battle of Ain Jalut, Mongols defeated by the Mamluks near Nazareth, Israel.
1260 Kublia Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, establishes Yuan Dynasty in China
1260 Gothic Cathedral of Notre Dame of Chartres consecrated
1261 Mongol rule over China completed under Kublia Khan
1261 Latin Constantinople under Emperor Baldwin II, falls to Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII
1265 London's Convent Garden begins as fruit and vegetable stand run by monks of St.Peter's Abbey
1266 Marco Polo's first visit to Court of Kublia Khan in China
1270 Eighth Crusade under France's Louis IX ends in failure due to heat and disease.
1271-1292 Return of Marco Polo to China and further travels
1282-1328 ANDRONICUS-II Palaeologus - Emperor
1284 First wearable eyeglasses credited to Salvino D' Armate in Italy
1288 First hand-held powder gun of bronze developed in China
1291 Last Christian stronghold at Acre (Akko) falls to the Muslims
1291 Tyre destroyed by the Mamlukes
1291 Switzerland founded in the League of the Three Forest Cantons for mutual defense
c. 1293 Venetians develop the great galley to endure long voyages and accommodate large cargoes
1298 Scottish forces of William Wallace (Braveheart) defeated by English with long bows at Battle of Falkirk
1298 Spinning Wheel invented, revolutionizing textile production
c. 1300 Decimal number system (without Zero) introduced into Europe
c. 1300 Onset of the so-called "Little Ice Age" which lasted into the 1800's. It followed the warm "Climate Optimum" of several hundred years.
c. 1303 Great Pharos Lighthouse of Alexandria (completed 280BC), then a mosque, is destroyed by an earthquake.
1305 - 1378 The so-called "Babylonian Captivity" of the Church. Due to civil unrest and anarchy, the Papal Court abandoned Rome and relocated to Avignon in southern France, causing an erosion of Papal authority, leading to the "Great Schism" of the Catholic Church from 1378 until 1417
1307 Legendary Swiss master archer William Tell shoots an apple off his son's head using a crossbow.
1314 June 24 Battle of Bannockburn in which Robert Bruce secured Scottish independence from England
1314 Jacques de Molay, Grand Master of Knights Templar in France, is charged with heresy by Phillip "The Fair" and burned at the stake on an island in the Seines River in Paris
1315-1318 Famine plagues many areas of Europe
1320 The paper industry is developed in Mainz Germany; which leads to production of paper money
1333 English Army of Edward III defeats Scots at Haildon Hill, proving superiority of 6-foot longbows and long ash arrows over crossbows firing short bolts
1324 Robert the Bruce secures independence for Scotland at the Battle of Bannockburn by capture of Stirling Castle from the English forces of Edward II.
c. 1327 Roots of Mexico City are planted when the Aztecs found the City of Tenochtitlan
1328-1341 ANDRONICUS-III Palaeologus - Emperor
c. 1332 Starvation in China leads to outbreak of Bubonic Plague which spreads westward
1334 Bubonic "Black" Plague, transmitted by fleas from rats, breaks out in Constantinople and spreads into Europe. In 20 years it will have killed up to three quarters of the populations in Europe and Asia. Crusaders and those returning from China assisted in carrying the decease back to Europe.
1337 The "100 Years War" (1337-1453) between England and France begins - which largely ended feudal society in France and ruined England as a continental power
1340 "Hundred Years War" Battle of Slues in France
1341-1376 JOHN-V Palaeologus - Emperor
1346 26, Aug - English military power is established at Battle of Crecy (10 miles north of Abbeville, Picardy, France) when Edward III with 10,000 long bowman (firing 12 arrows per minute at 750 yards), crushes French Calvary using crossbows near Abbeville
1347 "Hundred Years War" Battle of Calais in France
1347 - 1350 Period of the Black Plague or Black Death in Europe, reaching its zeneth during 1348 - thought to have been introduced by flea ridden rats returning with Crusaders from the Middle-East
1349 Strong Earthquake destroys southern portion of the Colosseum.
c. 1350 Gunpowder introduced into Europe and heavy firearms (cannons) come into use. Gunpowder will be the only explosive in wide use until the mid-1800's, when it was replaced by nitroglycerine based explosives.
c. 1350 Iron blast furnaces in use in Belgium
1351 Towns of Florence and Milan go to war over control of Tuscany
1354 Grenada's Alhambra Palace is completed after a century of work
1361 Second wave of Black Plague ravages Europe, though less severely than 1348
1362 English is language of the English Courts, while French is used in legal documents
1362 Norse explorers thought to have reached Hudson Bay
1368 Fall of Kahn Dynasty in China
1368 Ming Dynasty begins in China - Mongol rule ends
c. 1370 Great "Ming" Wall of China comes into being with new construction and rebuilding of the "Ch'in" and "Han" Walls, extending 4500 miles from the Korean border into the western Gobi Desert
1370 Bell Tower of Piza completed with a lean of 13 feet
1376-1379 ANDRONICUS-IV Palaeologus - Emperor
1377 First reference to use of Playing Cards
1378-1417 The Great Schism of the Catholic Church or Schism of the West - a division and disagreement within the Roman Catholic Church as to which Pope was valid and where the "Seat" of the Church was located, Rome or Avignon, France
1379-1391 JOHN-V Palaeologus (restored) - Emperor
1382 Black Death Bubonic Plague returns to Europe, less severe than before
1385 Heidelburg University founded
1389 Ottoman Turks under Murad I bring an end to Serb Empire at Battle of Kosovo on June 15
1390 JOHN-VII Palaeologus - Usurper
1391-1425 MANUEL-II Palaeologus - Emperor
c. 1392 Playing Cards becomes popular pastime in Europe
c. 1395 Small "match lock" fire arms (pistols & muskets) come into use
1399-1412 JOHN-VII Palaeologus - Restored as Co-Emperor
1399-1461 House of Lancaster rules over England and Great Britain, Henry IV - 1399-1413, Henry V - 1413-1422, Henry VI - 1422-1461, 1470-1471
1400 Traditional end of the Middle Ages (600-1400) and the beginning of the Renaissance Period - ending about 1600
1415 "Hundred Years War" Battle of Agincourt, where England won major victory over French forces near Calais, using longbows against French crossbows
c.1420 Numeral "Zero" comes into use in Europe
1425-1448 JOHN-VIII Palaeologus - Emperor
1429 Joan of Arc leads French patriots to victory in the assault and capture of English held City of Orleans, France
1431 Joan of Arc "Jeanne D'Arc - Maid of Orleans" (1412-1431) executed for heresy at Rouen, France
1449-1453 CONSTANTINE-XI Palaeologus - Last Emperor of Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire)
1453 5, Apr - 29, May - Siege and Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks under Muhammad-II, ending the Byzantine Era of the Roman Empire, using heavy cannons to breach the walls. This was the first use of a concentrated heavy gun artillery bombardment in history.
ROMAN EMPIRE FINALLY ENDS AFTER 1700 YEARS - 753 BC - 1453 AD
1453 The "100 Years War" (1337-1453) between England and France comes to an end
1457 James II of Scotland, bans football (soccer) and golf because they take too much time away from archery practice
1458 Fall of the Acropolis in Athens to the Ottoman Turks begins nearly 400 years of Ottoman Rule over Greece
1471-1485 House of York rules Britain, Edward IV 1461-1483, Edward V 1483, Richard III 1483-1485
1480 May 23-Aug 20 - First Siege of Rhodes by the Turks (70,000) is repulsed by the Knights Templar defenders (4500) after repeated Turkish assaults
1483 Leonardo di Vinci makes first known design for a heliocopter, along with other designs for various flying machines. Lack of a sufficiant source of power made them impractical.
1485 Aug-22 Battle of Bosworth, Leicestershire, ending the War of the Roses (1455-1485) between Richard III of York & Henry Tudor, Lancastrian claimant to the throne, establishing dominance of the Tudor Dynasty in England.
1485-1603 House of Tudor, (Henry VII - 1485-1509, Henry VIII - 1509-1547, Edward VI - 1547-1553, Mary I - 1553-1558, Elizabeth I - 1558-1603) rules over England and Great Britain
1488 First printing of the Odyssey and the Illiad, some 2000 years after being written
1492 First expedition of Christopher Columbus (Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria) reaches the Bahamas on Oct-12
1498 Bristled toothbrush comes into use in China
c. 1500 Great Wall of China, in its present form, comes into being during Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
c. 1500 The "Anno Domini" AD and "Before Christ" BC annotation of years comes into use.
1500 First black slaves brought to the new world by Spanish settlers to Hispaniola
1502 Columbus makes fourth and final voyage discovering Honduras, Costa Rica and use of rubber
c. 1504 Cantabury Cathedral in Engalnd is completed after 436 years of work
c. 1505 Movable type used in Venice to print and distribute music
1506 Original deteriorated St.Peters Church in Rome (blt c.322) ordered razed by Pope Julius-II to allow construction of present St. Peters Basilica, completed in 1615
1506 Christopher Columbus dies at the age of 55
c. 1508 Leonardo de Vinci paints the Mona Lisa and designs horizontal water wheel and water turbine
1509-1547 Henry VIII rules over England as second "Tudor" King
c. 1512? Ponce de Lion names Florida after Pascua Florida because he sights land on Easter Sunday
c. 1513 Gothic Chartres Cathedral in France completed after almost 400 years of construction
1515? Protestant Reformation begins when Monk Martin Luther nails his 95 thesis list on the door of Wittenburg Cathedral; which will flower into a schism that fractures the Christain World
1517 Ottoman Turks invade Cairo - The Spanish first arrive on the shores of Yucatan
1517? Tobacco introduced to Spanish explorer Juan de Grijalva by native indian chief
1518? South Sea renamed Pacific Ocean by Ferdinand Megellan after he sails thru straits of South America
1521 Spanish conquistidor Hernando Cortez besieges Tenochtitlán (Mexico City) with the last recorded use of a "trebuchet" siege engine and subjagates Aztec Empire in Central Mexico, which is soon ravaged by European intrusion and disease
1522 July 28-Dec 21 - Second Siege of Rhodes by Turkish forces of 100,000, defeat 6700 Knights Templar, who were granted honorable surrender and withdrew to the Island of Malta
1526 William Tyndale publishes first English version of the Bible's New Testament
1527 Rome sacked by Army of Holy Roman Emperor Charles-V of Hapsburg in quest for funds and booty
1528 Henry-VIII authorizes the printing and distribution of the Bible in the English language
1533 Anglecan Church formed when King Henry VIII servers ties to Cathlolic Church in Rome.
1537-1541 Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent rebuilds Jerusalem, walls and gates - refurbishes Dome of the Rock snd the Haram al-Sharif
1539 King Henry VIII orders first official English translation of the Bible - The Great Bible of 1539, which is widely distributed throughout England
1541 The Spanish finally subdue the Maya, however, sporadic resistance continues until about 1600
c. 1543 Spanish conquistador Gonzallo Pizarro names the Amazon River after being attacked by Indian women with bows and arrows
1543 Calpurnicus publishes his theory of a Heleo-Centric "sun-centered" solar system from his death bed
c. 1544 Colorado River and Grand Canyon discovered by Spanish explorers
c. 1545 Nikolaus Copernicus defies church doctrine by publishing his theory of a "Helio-Centric" sun centered universe
c. 1546 Europeans first visit Japan and introduce firearms into Japanese fighting
1546 Council of Trent proclaims the "Vulgate" (original Latin version of the Bible of 395AD) as the official Bible for the Roman Catholic Church.
1554 French astrologer Nostradomus publishes his propheses later thought to predict 20th Century events
1556 830,000 killed in China's worst recorded earthquake, which devastated eight provinces in the Shanxi Region.
1560 Geneva Bible, published under Elizabeth I - The first English Bible to have verse numbers
1565 May 19 - Sept 11 Turkish Siege of Malta, by Islam forces against the Templar Knights of St. John. With great losses on both sides, the siege failed and the westward advance of Islam in the Mediterranean was halted.
1566 First English language newspaper is published in London
1570 July 25-Sept 9 - Battle for Nicosia, (central Cyprus) Ottoman Turks (72,000) besiege and destroy the city taking control of the last Venetian bastion in Cyprus
1571 Birth of Johannes Kepler, the Champion of Observational Astronomy
1572 Supernovae (exploding star) observed by Tyco Brahe
1573 Siege of Alkmaar during "Eighty Year's War" of Dutch Independence near Amsterdam. Siege abandoned by Don Frederic when the Dutch threaten to open the dykes and flood the area.
1577 Sir Francis Drake embarks on circumnavigation of the world with his ship "Golden Hind".
c. 1578 Population of China reaches 60 million
1582 Pope Gregory-XIII decrees 10 days be dropped that year and adjusts Leap Years (century years not divisible by "four" are not to be leap years) to better match the calendar year to the Solar Year. This "Gregorian" calendar was not fully adopted until England-1752 & Eastern Church-20th Century See Leap Years
c. 1585 Decimal fractions are introduced by Dutch mathematician Simon Stevin
1588 First large use of cannons in a sea battle, Spanish Armada in the English Channel
c. 1590 The 12 tone musical scale of 7 major and 5 minor notes comes into use
c. 1592 Compound microscope developed by Zacherias Jansson of Denmark which lead to study of microorganisms
c. 1594 Principles of Algebra developed by mathematician Francios Viete of France
1594 Ruins of Pompeii rediscovered 1515 years after the Vesuvius Eruption of 79 AD
c. 1595 Flintlock fire arms come into use, replacing "wheel lock" type weapons
1598 London - First record of a residential house being moved
c. 1599 The tomato is introduced into England
1600 Sir Francis Drake completes circumnavigation of the world
1600 The first opera, as we know it, is performed in Florence Italy
1603-1649 House of Stuart rules over Britain, (James I - 1603-1625, Charles I - 1625-1649)
1604 Supernovae (exploding star) recorded by Johannes Kepler, the last such event observed in our galaxy to the present day.
1610 Galileo discovers the Moons of the Planet Jupiter through a telescope
1611 Authorized King James version of the Bible produced under reign of King James of England
1611 Galileo views the phases of the Planet Venus through a telescope
1614 John Napier develops concept of arithmetic logarithms and its tables. He also introduced the use of the decimal point in writing numbers.
1615 Present St. Peters Basilica in Rome completed under Pope Paul-V
1616 March-5 Catholic (Universal) Church bans concept of the Copurnican Helio-Centric (sun-centered) Theory.
1618-1648 Period of the "Thirty Years War", a horrific genocidal war involving all of Europe, with Germany as the battle ground, ending the Holy Roman Empire (962-1648) and establishing Protestantism
1620 Plymouth Colony established in Massachusetts
1620 Edmund Gunter, based on the logarithms of John Napier, develops the Logarithmic Scale, which simplifies arithmetic calculations and becomes the basis for the development of the Slide Rule around 1622.
c. 1622 The first Slide Rule calculators are developed independently by William Aughtred and Edmund Wingate, based on the principle of Logarithm's instituted by John Napier in 1614 and Edmund Gunter's logarithmic scales of 1620.
1631 Taj Mahal construction begins, completed in 1653
1631 18,000 killed by major eruption of Mount Vesuvius
1632 Battle of Altendorf during "Thirty Years War" - Swedish sustain defeat against Bavarian-Catholic forces.
1633 Galileo put on trial by the Catholic Church for espousing the Helio-Centric (sun-centered) Solar System Theory
c. 1635 Pope Clement VIII approves the drinking of coffee, previously considered a heathen's drink
1637 The first public opera house opens in Venice, Italy
1642 Jan-8 Galileo dies under house arrest by Catholic Church for espousing Helio-Centric (sun-centered) Theory
1643 Battle of Adwalton Moor, First English Civil War - Royalists defeat Parliamentary forces to take control of Yorkshire, except for Hull region. This was the last battle where English used archers - muskets come into use
1644 End of Ming Dynasty in China
1649-1659 Commonwealth and Protectorate (Cncl of State and Oliver & Richard Cromwell) rules over England and Great Britain
c. 1650 Lord Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, bans the celebration of Christmas during mid-1600's
1653 Taj Mahal completed after 22 years of construction, at a cost of $700 million in today's money.
1660-1714 House of Stuart (restored) rules England and Great Britain
1665 London Plague kills 100,000 or 1/6 of the City's population
1666 Sunday Sept 2 Great Fire of London burns for 5 days
1666 First English language newspaper published in London
c. 1668 Coffee introduced into North America, where it becomes popular after the Boston Tea Party, when the drinking of tea became unfashionable.
1688 Parthonon on the Acropolis in Athens, being used as a powder magazine by the Turks, is destroyed when it blows-up during a bombardment by the Venetians
1690 First newspaper in the United States is published in Boston
SOURCES: Penquin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome - Viking Press - 1995
RogueClassicism, David Meadows www.atrium-media.com/rogueclassicism
Time line of NovaRoma - Ancient Rome Reborn website
Rand McNally HistoMap of World History
"Information Please" on-line encylopedia
The Battle Book - Bryan Perrett - 1992
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