A Compilation assembled to more easily comprehend the   History of Ancient Rome  and its relationship to other Events in  Ancient World History from  550 AD  to  1699 AD

Last  Updated  on  January 22,  2013


       550      Badvila establishes Ostrogothic power in Italy with Rome as capitol 

       558      Dome of Hagia Sophia Church collapses during an earthquake 

       562      Third Purge of Pagans from Administration of Rome 

       562      Dec-24, Justinian dedicates restored dome of Hagia Sophia Church in Constantinople, after its collapse in 558 due to an earthquake.  

   565-578   JUSTIN-II - Emperor 

   578-582   Tiberius-II  CONSTANINUS - Emperor

   582-602   MAURICE - Emperor

     c.600     Concept and use of the numeral "Zero" comes into use in India

     c.600     Traditional Beginning of the so-called  Middle Ages - ending about 1400 AD with the beginning of the Renaissance Period

     c.600     Traditional Beginning of the so-called  Dark Ages - ending about 1000 AD - Followed by the so-called  High Middle Ages

   602-610   PHOCAS - Emperor

   610-641   HERACLIUS - Emperor

        622     The "Hegira", the flight of Muhammad from Mecca.  The traditional date on which the Islamic calendar is based, (abbreviation "A.H. Anno Hegirae)  

        632      Muhammad dies. 

        639      Muslim armies take control of  Syria,  Egypt,  Jordon  and  Holy Land,  

        641       Constantine-III  &  Heracleonas - Co-Emperors

        641      HERACLEONAS - Emperor

  641-668    Constans-II  POGONATUS - Emperor

        642     Great Library at Alexandria destroyed by invasion of the Muslims 

        654     Bronze remains of the Colossus of Rhodes, which had lain for 880 years since 226BC when it was felled by an earthquake, are carried away by Arab invaders

  668-685    CONSTANTINE-IV - Emperor

        678      Use of Greek Fire documented

  685-695    Justinian-II  RHINOTMETUS - Emperor

     c.688      Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem completed with assistance of Byzantines

        691      Dome of the Rock dedicated, followed by the Al-Aqsa Mosque in 715  

  695-698    LEONTIUS - Emperor

  698-705    Tiberius-III - Emperor

  705-711    Justinian-II (restored) - Emperor

  711-713    PHILLIPICUS Bardanes - Emperor

  713-715    ANASTASIUS-II - Emperor

  716-717    THEODOSIUS-III - Emperor

  717-741    LEO-III (the Isaurian or the Syrian) - Emperor

  741-775    Constantine-V  COPRONYMUS - Emperor

      742        Charlemagne is born

  775-780    LEO-IV (the Khazar) - Emperor

  780-797    CONSTANTINE-VI - Emperor

      787        Second Council of  Nicaea decrees religious icons to be venerated,  but not worshiped 

      793       First Viking Raid on England at Monastery of Lindesfarne 

  797-802    IRENE - Emperess 

       800       Charlemagne of France becomes Emperor of the West  -   Schism arises between Eastern & Western Churches

   c. 800       Mayan civilization in Central America reaches its zenith

   802-811   NICEPHORUS-I - Emperor

   802-839   Egbert, first of the Saxons and Danes, rules over Britain 

  802-1066  Saxons and Danes rule over England and Great Britain

        811      STAURACIUS - Emperor

   811-813   MICHAEL-I - Emperor 

   813-820   LEO-V (the Armenian) - Emperor

   820-829   MICHAEL-II (the Stammerer) - Emperor

   829-842   THEOPHILUS - Emperor

       837       Halley's Comet makes spectacular appearance in closest known approach - only 3.2 million miles from Earth

   842-867   MICHAEL-III (the Drunkard) - Emperor

   867-886   BASIL-I (the Macedonian) - Emperor

   886-912   LEO-VI (the Wise or the Philosopher) - Emperor

    c. 890     "Berserkers" of Norway

   912-913   ALEXANDER - Emperor

   913-919   Constantine-VII  PORPHYROGENITUS - Emperor

   919-944   Romanus-I  LECAPENUS - Emperor

   944-959   Constantine-VII (restored) - Emperor

    c. 850      Gunpowder developed in China and used in firecrackers and small rockets.  It will be the only explosive in wide use until the mid-1800's, when it was replaced by nitroglycerine based explosives.

   924-939   Athelstan, Son of Edward ("the Elder", Saxon-Dane) rules over Britain

   959-963   ROMANUS-II - Emperor

        960      Viking Eric the Red sets-out across the North Atlantic in "long-boats" from Scandinavia  to settle Iceland 

        962      Holy Roman Empire (962-1648) (Germany-Austria-N.Italy) comes into being with coronation of German King Otto-I.  It was intended as a "New" Roman Empire to defend the Christian Faith in the face of Muslim invasion and doctrine.

        963      Basil-II   BULGAROKTONOS - Emperor

   963-969   Nicephorus-II  PHOCAS - Emperor

   969-976   John-I  TZIMISCES - Emperor 

         975    Original "London" Bridge opened.  Built of wood, it and its stone replacement of 1209, was the only bridge over the Thames River until the Westminster Bridge was opened in 1750.  

  976-1025  Basil-II (restored) - Emperor

      c. 982    Norse Chieftian,  Eric the Red  discovers Greenland  and in  c.986 establishes colony of 500 there  

         985     Eric the Red leaves Iceland under penalty of death to settle in Greenland

      c. 987    Toltec Empire founded in Yucatan, formally Mayan territory 

     c.1000     Traditional End of the so-called Dark Ages and beginning of the High Middle Ages 

     c.1000 - 1400   Traditionally considered to be the Time Period of the High Middle Ages 

    c. 1000    POPULATIONS  -  Byzantine Empire = 20 million  -  Constantinople = 900,000  -  Holy Roman Empire = 35 million  -  Cairo = 125,000  -  Cordova (Spain) = 450,000  -   Baghdad = 125,000  -  Angkor (Cambodia) = 200,000  -  Kaifeng (China) = 400,000  -  Kyoto (Japan) = 175,000  -  India Kingdoms = 50 million  -  Viking Kingdoms = 1-2 million

    c. 1000   First settlement of Vikings in Newfoundland. 

    c. 1000   King Oloff of Norway declares that all lands under his control, including Iceland,  would be officially Christian. 

    c. 1000   Italian musician Aquido Alvereso institutes the five parallel line music staff

    c. 1000   Alcan devises early version of gunpowder in China for use in fireworks 

    c. 1000   First known vision aid "Reading Stone" a glass sphere which magnified when placed over text, comes into use.  

        1001   Viking Leif the Lucky lands in Newfoundland from Greenland, 500 years before Columbus 

    c. 1009   Church of  the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem destroyed on order of Al-Hakim, Caliph of Egypt-Syria & Palestine

       1016    Danish take control of England after Battle of Ashington in Essex.

       1025    Basil-II dies 

       1027    Church of Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem rebuilt after being destroyed in 1009 by Al-Hakim

1025-1028  CONSTANTINE-VIII - Emperor

1028-1034  Zoe and Romanus-III Argyrus - Co-Emperors

1034-1041  Zoe and Michael-IV (the Papthlagonian) - Co-Emperors

1041-1042  Zoe and Michael-V Calaphates - Co-Emperors

1042-1066  Edward ("the Confessor", Saxon-Dane) rules over Britain

1042-1050  Zoe THEODORA and Constantine-IX  MONOMACHUS - Co-Emperors 

1050-1055  Theodora and Constantine-IX - Co-Emperors

      1054     Patriarch of Constantinople and the Pope in Rome excommunicate each other causing the Great Schism between the Byzantine (Eastern) and Latin Churches

      1054     Supernovae (exploding star) in the constellation Taurus the Bull, observed by Chinese astronomers as a "Guest Star" which is now observed as the Crab Nebulae

1055-1056  Theodora - Emperor

1056-1057  Michael-VI  STRATIOTICUS - Emperor

1057-1059  Isaac-I  COMNENUS - Emperor

1059-1067  CONSTANTINE-X  Ducas - Emperor

      1066  Oct 14  Battle of Hastings, (East Sussex, England) in which William the Conqueror leads the House of Normandy to victory and rules 1066 to 1087 as the first of the three Norman Kings

1066-1135  House of Normandy (William I, II, Henry I) rules over England and Great Britain

1067-1068  MICHAEL-VII  Ducas (Parapinaces) - Emperor

1068-1071  Romanus-IV  DIOGENES - Emperor

1071-1078  MICHAEL-VII Ducas (restored) - Emperor

1078-1081  Nicephorus-III  BOTANIATES - Emperor

   c. 1080     Traditional dating for the Bayeux Tapestry

1081-1118  ALEXIUS-I Comnenus - Emperor

      1091      Custom of Ash Wednesday (using ashes of palm leaves) at the beginning of the Lenten Season instituted by Pope Gregory

      1095      First Crusade organized to gain control of the Holy Land from the Muslims

1096-1099  First Christian Crusade to the Holy Land 

      1097  1, July - Battle of Dorylaeum (Eskisehir western Turkey) ambush by Turks routed by the Christian forces of Duke Bohemond, Duke Godfery de Buillon and Count Toulouse, during the First Crusade to restore the Holy Land to Christian control

      1098  28, June - Battle of Antioch "The Orontes" - Crusaders of First Crusade, under Duke Bohemond defeat Moslem forces of Kerboga after capturing Antioch,  then being besieged and then rallying to victory. 

      1099  June 9 - July 18  Siege of Jerusalem by Christian Crusaders (11,000) under Godfrey de Buillon, take control of Jerusalem and defeat the Emir al Afdal (50,000) at Ascalon to end the First Crusade - Al-Aqsa Mosque becomes headquarters for the Knights Templar

  c. 1100      Mayan civilization in Central America in decline toward collapse

  c. 1100      Playing cards in use in Asia 

  c. 1105      First table fork introduced into use in Italy

  c. 1109      Second (present) Church of Holy Sepulchre, in Jeruselem completed

1118-1143   JOHN-II Comnenus - Emperor

      1131      Death of Omar Khayyam (1048-1131) Persian poet and mathematician

1135-1154   House of Blois, (Stephen, grandson of William I) rules over England and Great Britain

1143-1180   MANUEL-I Comnenus - Emperor

      1144      Christians lose control of Edessa to the Turks

1147-1149   Second Crusade which ends in dismal failure

      1150      Returning Crusaders introduce sugar into Europe where it becomes favored over honey. 

  c. 1150      Chinese seaman and caravan leaders use crude magnetic compasses for navigation

  c. 1151      Iceland issues the first fire and plague insurance

1154-1399   House of Plantagenet (Henry II, Richard I, John, Henry III, Edward I, II, III, Richard II) rules over England and Great Britain

     1160       The Arabs expell the Normans from North Africa

     1169       The first classes at Oxford take place

     1171       Foundation laid for the Bell Tower of Piza

     1174       Architech Bonnano Pisano constructs a 177 foot high bell tower (campanili) that will become known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa

c. 1175       First reference to use of a magnetic compass for navigation

1180-1183   ALEXIUS-II Comnenus - Emperor

1183-1185   ANDRONICUS-I Comnenus - Emperor

      1184      Cyprus acheives independance from the Byzantine Empire

      1185      Shogun Era begins in Japan, taking control from Emperors and ruling until the 1860's

1185-1195   ISAAC-II  Angelus - Emperor 

      1187      Saladin defeats Crusaders at Horn of Hittin and captures Jerusalem and most Crusader States for Islam

1189-1192   Third Crusade led by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick-I Barbarossa,   Phillip-II of France & Richard-I (The Lion Heart - Coeur de Lion) of England;  fails to recapture Jerusalem

     1191      Third Crusaders under Richard,I "Lion Hearted" ambushed by Saracens of Salidin at Arsuf near Tel Aviv, defeat the Saracens and conclude a treaty in 1192 granting rights to Christian pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem.

     1193      Licensed prostitution begins in Japan

     1194      Chichen Itza,   the great Mayan City in Mexico is abandoned

     1194       91 years of Norman rule in Italy ends when Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI takes control of Sicily and southern Italy

1195-1203   ALEXIUS-III  Angelus - Emperor

     1198       Venice becomes the commercial capitol of Europe

     1198       Order of Teutonic Knights (Knights of St.Mary Hospital and Teutons) established in Jeruselem for German Nobles in preparation for 4th Crusade

     1199       Richard the Lion Heart is killed in France and his brother, John-I becomes King of England 

     1201       A swarm of earthquakes kills more than 1 million people in Egypt, Syria and middle-east in the deadliest earthquake event in recorded history.

     1202       Knowledge of Arabic Numerals and "Zero" reach Europe

1202-1204   Fourth Crusade was diverted to benefit Venice and the Crusaders take control of Constantinople

1203-1204   Isaac-II (restored) and Alexius-IV Angelus - Co-Emperors

      1204      Crusaders attack Constantinople and the Latin Empire of Constantinople (1204-1261) created by leaders of the Fourth Crusade.  The Schism of 1054 between the Byzantine (East) and Latin (West) Churches becomes final.  

1204-1222   THEODORE-I  Lascaris - Emperor  

      1209      Second "London Bridge" (England) is completed as the first masonry structure across the Thames River.  It carried houses and a Chapel, which were removed from 1756-1762 and was the only bridge over the Thames River until the Westminster Bridge of 1750.  The bridge was replaced in 1831 by the stone structure that was dismantled (1968) and moved to Havasue City, Arizona

      1211      Ghengis Khan's   mongol hords invade China - Mongol rule complete by 1261

      1212      Children's Crusade results in most being sold as slaves or dying of hunger or disease

      1215      Magna Carta (lat. great charter) signed by King John and rebelling nobles of England at Runnymede, ensuring constitutional rights between the King, his Lords and other subjects.  It was revised and re-issued in 1225, and this version became the basis of modern civil liberties, and  been termed the "Birth Certificate of Constitutional Government".

      1217      Cambridge University founded

  c. 1217      Ghengis Khan conquers Persia

1217-1221   Fifth Crusade aimed at Egypt is unsucessful 

1222-1254   JOHN-III  Vatatzes or Ducas - Emperor 

       1223     Mongols (80,000) route the Russian Army (40,000) at Battle of Kalka River in the southern Ukraine 

       1224     Chichen Itza abandoned by the Toltecs,  city resettled by Uicil-Abnal people,  later known as the Itza   

       1224     St.Francis of Assai creates the first living Christmas scene to explain the Nativity to his followers

       1225     Cotton manufactured in Spain and it becomes a competitor to wool and linen

       1227     Ghenges Kahn dies and his empire is divided among his three sons

1228-1229   Sixth Crusade short-lived and a failure - Crusaders are granted rule of Jerusalem for 10 years - Rival Islamic dynasties fight over the City in following decades

       1233     Pope Gregory IX establishes the Inquisition staffed by  Dominican friers 

       1241  April 11 - Battle of Mohi (Sajo River 90 miles n/e of Budapest) during Mongol Invasion of Europe 1237-1242, when the Hungarian army was destroyed and eastern Europe, from the Baltic to the Danube, came under Mongol control. 

       1244     The Itza abandon Chichen Itza in Yucatan  for unknown reasons 

       1250 Feb. 8-11 - 7th Crusade (1248-1254) collapses when the army, weakened by scurvy, is  defeated by Egyptian forces at the Battle of Fariskur-Mansura, north of Cairo

   c. 1251     Crusaders introduce the decimal number system into Europe; but it is not widely adopted

1254-1258  THEODORE-II  Lascaris - Emperor 

      1528     Henry-VIII authorizes printing and distribution of the Bible in English 

1258-1261  JOHN-IV Lascaris - Emperor

1259-1282  MICHAEL-VIII  Palaeologus - Emperor

      1260     Battle of Ain Jalut, Mongols defeated by the Mamluks near Nazareth, Israel.

      1260     Kublia Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, establishes Yuan Dynasty in China

      1260     Gothic Cathedral of Notre Dame of Chartres consecrated

      1261     Mongol rule over China completed under Kublia Khan 

      1261     Latin Constantinople under Emperor Baldwin II, falls to Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII

      1265     London's Convent Garden begins as fruit and vegetable stand run by monks of St.Peter's Abbey

      1266     Marco Polo's   first visit to Court of Kublia Khan in China

      1270     Eighth Crusade under France's Louis IX ends in failure due to heat and disease.

1271-1292  Return of  Marco Polo to China and further travels 

1282-1328  ANDRONICUS-II  Palaeologus - Emperor

      1284      First wearable eyeglasses credited to Salvino D' Armate in Italy 

      1288      First hand-held powder gun of bronze developed in China 

      1291      Last Christian stronghold at  Acre (Akko)  falls to the Muslims

      1291      Tyre destroyed by the Mamlukes

      1291      Switzerland founded in the League of the Three Forest Cantons for mutual defense

  c. 1293      Venetians develop the great galley to endure long voyages and accommodate large cargoes 

      1298      Scottish forces of William Wallace (Braveheart) defeated by English with long bows at Battle of Falkirk

      1298      Spinning Wheel invented, revolutionizing textile production

  c. 1300      Decimal number system (without Zero) introduced into Europe 

  c. 1300      Onset of the so-called "Little Ice Age" which lasted  into the 1800's.  It followed the warm "Climate Optimum" of several hundred years.

  c. 1303      Great Pharos Lighthouse of Alexandria (completed 280BC), then a mosque, is destroyed by an earthquake.

1305 - 1378    The so-called "Babylonian Captivity" of the Church.  Due to civil unrest and anarchy, the Papal Court abandoned Rome and relocated to Avignon in southern France, causing an erosion of Papal authority, leading to the "Great Schism" of the Catholic Church from 1378 until 1417

     1307      Legendary Swiss master archer William Tell shoots an apple off his son's head using a crossbow.

     1314      June 24  Battle of Bannockburn in which Robert Bruce secured Scottish independence from England 

     1314      Jacques de Molay, Grand Master of Knights Templar in France, is charged with heresy by Phillip "The Fair" and burned at the stake on an island in the Seines River in Paris

1315-1318  Famine plagues many areas of Europe

      1320     The paper industry is developed in Mainz Germany; which leads to production of paper money

      1333     English Army of Edward III defeats Scots at Haildon Hill, proving superiority of 6-foot longbows and long ash arrows over crossbows firing short bolts

      1324     Robert the Bruce secures independence for Scotland at the Battle of Bannockburn by capture of Stirling Castle from the English forces of Edward II.

  c. 1327      Roots of Mexico City are planted when the Aztecs found the City of Tenochtitlan

1328-1341  ANDRONICUS-III  Palaeologus - Emperor

  c. 1332      Starvation in China leads to outbreak of Bubonic Plague which spreads westward

      1334      Bubonic "Black" Plague,  transmitted by fleas from rats,  breaks out in Constantinople and spreads into Europe.  In 20 years it will have killed up to three quarters of the populations in Europe and Asia.  Crusaders and those returning from China assisted in carrying the decease back to Europe.

      1337      The "100 Years War" (1337-1453)  between  England and France begins - which largely ended feudal society in France and ruined England as a continental power

      1340      "Hundred Years War" Battle of Slues in France

1341-1376  JOHN-V  Palaeologus - Emperor

      1346  26, Aug - English military power is established at Battle of Crecy (10 miles north of Abbeville, Picardy, France) when Edward III with 10,000 long bowman (firing 12 arrows per minute at 750 yards),  crushes French Calvary using crossbows near Abbeville

      1347     "Hundred Years War" Battle of Calais in France

1347 - 1350  Period of the Black Plague or Black Death in Europe, reaching its zeneth during 1348 - thought to have been introduced by flea ridden rats returning with Crusaders from the Middle-East

      1349      Strong Earthquake destroys southern portion of the Colosseum.  

  c. 1350      Gunpowder introduced into Europe and heavy firearms (cannons) come into use.  Gunpowder will be the only explosive in wide use until the mid-1800's, when it was replaced by nitroglycerine based explosives.

  c. 1350      Iron blast furnaces in use in Belgium 

      1351      Towns of Florence and Milan go to war over control of Tuscany

      1354      Grenada's Alhambra Palace is completed after a century of work

      1361      Second wave of Black Plague ravages Europe, though less severely than 1348

      1362      English is language of the English Courts, while French is used in legal documents

      1362      Norse explorers thought to have reached Hudson Bay

      1368      Fall of Kahn Dynasty in China

      1368      Ming Dynasty begins in China - Mongol rule ends 

   c. 1370     Great "Ming" Wall of China comes into being with new construction and rebuilding of the "Ch'in" and "Han" Walls, extending 4500 miles from the Korean border into the western Gobi Desert 

       1370     Bell Tower of Piza completed with a lean of 13 feet

1376-1379   ANDRONICUS-IV  Palaeologus - Emperor

      1377      First reference to use of Playing Cards

1378-1417   The Great Schism of the Catholic Church or Schism of the West - a division and disagreement within the Roman Catholic Church as to which Pope was valid and where the "Seat" of the Church was located, Rome or Avignon, France

1379-1391  JOHN-V  Palaeologus (restored) - Emperor

      1382     Black Death Bubonic Plague returns to Europe, less severe than before

      1385     Heidelburg University founded

      1389     Ottoman Turks under Murad I  bring an end to Serb Empire at Battle of Kosovo on June 15

      1390     JOHN-VII  Palaeologus - Usurper 

1391-1425  MANUEL-II  Palaeologus - Emperor

  c. 1392      Playing Cards becomes popular pastime in Europe

  c. 1395      Small "match lock" fire arms (pistols & muskets) come into use

1399-1412  JOHN-VII  Palaeologus - Restored as Co-Emperor

1399-1461  House of Lancaster rules over England and Great Britain, Henry IV - 1399-1413, Henry V -  1413-1422, Henry VI - 1422-1461, 1470-1471

      1400     Traditional end of the Middle Ages (600-1400) and the beginning of the Renaissance Period - ending about 1600

      1415     "Hundred Years War" Battle of Agincourt, where England won major victory over French forces near Calais, using longbows against French crossbows 

   c.1420      Numeral "Zero" comes into use in   Europe

1425-1448  JOHN-VIII  Palaeologus - Emperor

      1429     Joan of Arc  leads French patriots to victory in the assault and capture of  English held City of Orleans, France

      1431     Joan of Arc "Jeanne D'Arc - Maid of Orleans" (1412-1431) executed for heresy at  Rouen, France

1449-1453  CONSTANTINE-XI  Palaeologus - Last Emperor of Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire)

      1453  5, Apr - 29, May - Siege and Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks under Muhammad-II,  ending the Byzantine Era of the Roman Empire, using heavy cannons to breach the walls.  This was the first use of a concentrated heavy gun artillery bombardment in history.


      1453      The "100 Years War" (1337-1453)  between  England and France comes to an end

      1457      James II of Scotland, bans football (soccer) and golf because they take too much time away from archery practice   

      1458      Fall of the Acropolis in Athens to the Ottoman Turks begins nearly 400 years of Ottoman Rule over Greece

1471-1485  House of York rules Britain,  Edward IV 1461-1483,  Edward V 1483,  Richard III 1483-1485

     1480 May 23-Aug 20 - First Siege of Rhodes by the Turks (70,000) is repulsed by the Knights Templar defenders (4500) after repeated Turkish assaults 

      1483     Leonardo di Vinci makes first known design for a heliocopter, along with other designs for various flying machines.  Lack of a sufficiant source of power made them impractical. 

      1485  Aug-22  Battle of Bosworth, Leicestershire, ending the War of the Roses (1455-1485) between Richard III of York & Henry Tudor, Lancastrian claimant to the throne, establishing dominance of the Tudor Dynasty in England.  

1485-1603  House of Tudor, (Henry VII - 1485-1509, Henry VIII - 1509-1547, Edward VI - 1547-1553, Mary I -  1553-1558, Elizabeth I - 1558-1603) rules over England and Great Britain

      1488      First printing of the Odyssey and the Illiad, some 2000 years after being written 

      1492      First expedition of Christopher Columbus (Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria) reaches the Bahamas on Oct-12

      1498      Bristled toothbrush comes into use in China 

  c. 1500      Great Wall of China,  in its present form,  comes into being during  Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)

  c. 1500      The "Anno Domini" AD and "Before Christ" BC annotation of years comes into use.

      1500      First black slaves brought to the new world by Spanish settlers to Hispaniola

      1502      Columbus makes fourth and final voyage discovering Honduras, Costa Rica and use of rubber

  c. 1504      Cantabury Cathedral in Engalnd is completed after 436 years of work

  c. 1505      Movable type used in Venice to print and distribute music

      1506      Original deteriorated St.Peters Church in Rome (blt c.322) ordered razed by Pope Julius-II to allow construction of present  St. Peters Basilica,  completed in 1615

      1506      Christopher Columbus dies at the age of 55

  c. 1508      Leonardo de Vinci paints the Mona Lisa and designs horizontal water wheel and water turbine 

1509-1547   Henry VIII  rules over England as second "Tudor" King  

  c. 1512?     Ponce de Lion names Florida after Pascua Florida because he sights land on Easter Sunday

  c. 1513      Gothic Chartres Cathedral in France completed after almost 400 years of construction

      1515?    Protestant Reformation begins when Monk Martin Luther nails his 95 thesis list on the door of  Wittenburg Cathedral;  which will flower into a schism that fractures the Christain World

      1517      Ottoman Turks invade Cairo  -  The Spanish first arrive on the shores of Yucatan

      1517?    Tobacco introduced to Spanish explorer Juan de Grijalva  by native indian chief

      1518?    South Sea renamed Pacific Ocean by Ferdinand Megellan after he sails thru straits of South America

      1521      Spanish conquistidor Hernando Cortez besieges Tenochtitlán (Mexico City) with the last recorded use of a "trebuchet" siege engine and subjagates Aztec Empire in Central Mexico, which is soon ravaged by European intrusion and disease 

      1522 July 28-Dec 21 - Second Siege of Rhodes by Turkish forces of 100,000, defeat 6700 Knights Templar, who were granted honorable surrender and withdrew to the Island of Malta     

      1526      William Tyndale publishes first English version of the Bible's New Testament

      1527      Rome sacked by Army of Holy Roman Emperor Charles-V of Hapsburg in quest for funds and booty

      1528     Henry-VIII authorizes the printing and distribution of the Bible in the English language

      1533     Anglecan Church formed when King Henry VIII servers ties to Cathlolic Church in Rome.

1537-1541  Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent rebuilds Jerusalem, walls and gates - refurbishes Dome of the Rock snd the Haram al-Sharif  

      1539      King Henry VIII orders first official English translation of the Bible - The Great Bible of 1539,  which is widely distributed throughout England

      1541     The Spanish finally subdue the Maya,  however, sporadic resistance continues until about 1600

  c. 1543      Spanish conquistador Gonzallo Pizarro names the Amazon River after being attacked by Indian women with bows and arrows

      1543      Calpurnicus publishes his theory of a Heleo-Centric "sun-centered" solar system from his death bed 

  c. 1544      Colorado River and Grand Canyon discovered by Spanish explorers

  c. 1545      Nikolaus Copernicus defies church doctrine by publishing his theory of a "Helio-Centric" sun centered universe

  c. 1546      Europeans first visit Japan and introduce firearms into Japanese fighting

      1546      Council of Trent proclaims the "Vulgate" (original Latin version of the Bible of 395AD) as the official Bible for the Roman Catholic Church.

      1554      French astrologer Nostradomus publishes his propheses later thought to predict 20th Century events

      1556      830,000 killed in China's worst recorded earthquake, which devastated eight provinces in the Shanxi Region. 

      1560      Geneva Bible,   published under Elizabeth I  -  The first English Bible to have verse numbers 

      1565  May 19 - Sept 11  Turkish Siege of Malta, by Islam forces against the Templar Knights of St. John.  With great losses on both sides, the siege failed and the westward advance of Islam in the Mediterranean was halted. 

      1566      First English language newspaper is published in London 

      1570 July 25-Sept 9 - Battle for Nicosia, (central Cyprus) Ottoman Turks (72,000) besiege and destroy the city taking control of the last Venetian bastion in Cyprus 

      1571      Birth of Johannes Kepler, the Champion of Observational Astronomy

      1572      Supernovae (exploding star) observed by Tyco Brahe

      1573      Siege of Alkmaar during "Eighty Year's War" of  Dutch Independence near Amsterdam.   Siege abandoned by Don Frederic when the Dutch threaten to open the dykes and flood the area.

      1577     Sir Francis Drake embarks on circumnavigation of the world with his ship "Golden Hind". 

  c. 1578      Population of China reaches 60 million

      1582      Pope Gregory-XIII decrees 10 days be dropped that year and adjusts Leap Years (century years   not divisible by "four" are not to be leap years) to better match the calendar year to the Solar Year.  This "Gregorian" calendar was not fully adopted until England-1752 & Eastern Church-20th Century  See Leap Years 

  c. 1585      Decimal fractions are introduced by Dutch mathematician Simon Stevin

      1588      First large use of cannons in a sea battle, Spanish Armada in the English Channel  

  c. 1590      The 12 tone musical scale of 7 major and 5 minor notes comes into use

  c. 1592      Compound microscope developed by Zacherias Jansson of Denmark which lead to study of microorganisms

  c. 1594      Principles of Algebra developed by mathematician Francios Viete of France 

      1594      Ruins of Pompeii rediscovered 1515 years after the Vesuvius Eruption of 79 AD

  c. 1595      Flintlock fire arms come into use,   replacing "wheel lock" type weapons

      1598      London - First record of a residential house being moved 

  c. 1599      The tomato is introduced into England

      1600      Sir Francis Drake completes circumnavigation of the world 

      1600      The first opera, as we know it, is performed in Florence Italy

1603-1649   House of Stuart rules over Britain, (James I - 1603-1625, Charles I - 1625-1649)

      1604      Supernovae (exploding star) recorded by Johannes Kepler, the last such event observed in our galaxy to the present day.

      1610      Galileo discovers the Moons of the Planet Jupiter through a telescope

      1611      Authorized King James version of the Bible produced under reign of King James of England 

      1611      Galileo views the phases of the Planet Venus through a telescope

      1614      John Napier develops concept of arithmetic logarithms and its tables.  He also introduced the use of the decimal point in writing numbers. 

      1615      Present St. Peters Basilica in Rome completed under Pope Paul-V

      1616  March-5  Catholic (Universal) Church bans concept of the Copurnican Helio-Centric (sun-centered) Theory.

 1618-1648  Period of the "Thirty Years War", a horrific genocidal war involving all of Europe, with Germany as the battle ground, ending the Holy Roman Empire (962-1648) and establishing Protestantism 

      1620      Plymouth Colony established in Massachusetts

      1620      Edmund Gunter, based on the logarithms of John Napier, develops the Logarithmic Scale, which simplifies arithmetic calculations and becomes the basis for the development of the Slide Rule around 1622.

   c. 1622     The first Slide Rule calculators are developed independently by William Aughtred and Edmund Wingate, based on the principle of Logarithm's instituted by    John Napier in 1614 and Edmund Gunter's logarithmic scales of 1620.

      1631      Taj Mahal construction begins,  completed in 1653

      1631      18,000 killed by major eruption of Mount Vesuvius

      1632      Battle of Altendorf during "Thirty Years War" - Swedish sustain defeat against Bavarian-Catholic forces.

      1633      Galileo put on trial by the Catholic Church for espousing the Helio-Centric (sun-centered) Solar System Theory

  c. 1635      Pope Clement VIII approves the drinking of coffee,  previously considered a heathen's drink

      1637      The first public opera house opens in Venice, Italy

      1642      Jan-8  Galileo dies under house arrest by Catholic Church for espousing Helio-Centric (sun-centered) Theory

      1643      Battle of Adwalton Moor, First English Civil War - Royalists defeat Parliamentary forces to take control of Yorkshire, except for Hull region.  This was the last battle where English used archers - muskets come into use

      1644      End of Ming Dynasty in China

1649-1659   Commonwealth and Protectorate (Cncl of State and Oliver & Richard Cromwell) rules over England and Great Britain

  c. 1650      Lord Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, bans the celebration of Christmas during mid-1600's

      1653      Taj Mahal completed after 22 years of construction, at a cost of  $700 million in today's money.

1660-1714   House of Stuart (restored) rules England and Great Britain 

      1665      London Plague kills 100,000 or 1/6 of the City's population

      1666      Sunday Sept 2   Great Fire of London burns for 5 days 

      1666      First English language newspaper published in London

  c. 1668      Coffee introduced into North America,  where it becomes popular after the Boston Tea Party,  when the drinking of tea became unfashionable.

      1688      Parthonon on the Acropolis in Athens, being used as a powder magazine by the Turks, is destroyed when it blows-up during a bombardment by the Venetians

      1690      First newspaper in the United States is published in Boston



SOURCES:    Penquin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome - Viking Press - 1995

                        RogueClassicism, David Meadows  www.atrium-media.com/rogueclassicism 

                        Time line of  NovaRoma - Ancient Rome Reborn  website

                        Rand McNally  HistoMap of World History 

                      "Information Please" on-line encylopedia 

                        The Battle Book - Bryan Perrett - 1992

* *  SPQR  * *  753 BC  -  2205 YEARS  -  1453 AD   * *  SPQR  * *






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