MACHINA Seige Engine / torsion powered artillary
MAGISTER Late Empire period term for "master" (director-expert) or senior officer
MAIUS May, sacred to "Maia", was the third month of the 10 month long "Romulus" Calendar, It became the fifth month of the "revised" 12 month Roman Republican Calendar in 200 BC / 552 AUC, Ab Urba Condita, "from the Founding of the City" (Rome), when the Roman New Year was moved from March 1st (Kalends Martius) to January 1st (Kalends Januarius / Ianuarius). See MARTIUS below for a more detailed explanation.
MALE Badly / Feel Ill - Origin of the term "malady" for illness
MANDATA CAPATE Attention (lit. observe the orders)
MANIPLE - MANIPULUS Latin for "Handful". An army unit composed of two 80 man Centuria. Three Maniples were usually joined to form a Cohort of six Centuries. The Maniple unit fell out of favor with the reforms of Marius in 106BC and the Cohort unit came into wider use. Legions composed of 10 Cohorts instead of 30 Maniples became the standard into the Empire Period.
MANIPULARIS Heavy infantry soldier serving with a "Maniple" unit.
MANSIO An Inn or hostel
MANUBALLISTA Small portable torsion powered crossbow weapon.
MARTICULA Roster of the Legionaries in an army unit
MARTIUS March, sacred to the god of war "Mars", was the first month of the 304 day, 10 month long "Romulus" Calendar. In 713 BC / 40 AUC, January / Januarius was added at the beginning, and February / Februarius was added to the end of the original 10 month "Romulus" Calendar, extending it to 355 days; but still nine days short of a full solar year. To make the calendar better correspond to the solar year, these extra nine days were inserted as a part of the "intercalery" month "Mercedonius" between the 23rd and 24th days of February, every other year. The last five days of February became a part of Mercedonius when that month was implemented every other year. The first day of March (Kalends Martius) was the Roman "New Year's Day" until circa 200 BC or 552 AUC, Ab Urba Condita, "from the Founding of the City" (Rome). In 200 BC / 552 AUC, February was moved between January and March and the First of January (Kalends Januarius/Ianuarius) became the first day of the then "revised" 12 month Roman Republican Calendar. The Kalends Martius, however, continued to be a day of significance to the Romans. In 46BC, Julius Caesar further reformed the calendar, adding "leap years" creating the so-called "Julian" Calendar. See "Mercedonius" below and consult "Early Roman Calendar" on our DateYearTime Page for a more complete explanation.
MERCEDONIUS The so-called "intercalery" (added to the calendar) month of 27 or 28 days, also known as "Intercalans" that was inserted every other year into the month of February / Februarius to make the Roman Republican Calendar correspond more closely to the actual length of the solar year. It takes its name from the Latin "Merces" for wages, as workers were traditionally paid at this time of the year. The month or period of Mercedonius was inserted between the 23rd and 24th days of February and consisted of 22 or 23 days, plus the last five remaining days (24th thru 28th) of February. These last five days of February were apparently considered a part of Mercedonius when that month was implemented every other year. See MARTIUS above and "Roman Calendar" on our DateYearTime Page for more details on the Roman Calendar.
MEDICUS Medical Orderly or doctor
MERDIANUS South of ( a location)
MILE (Roman) A distance of a "mille passus" (1000 paces) equal to 1620 yards or 4820 feet or 1.4 kilometers or .913 of a 5280 foot modern mile. Hadrian's Wall is 80 Roman Miles or 74 modern miles in length.
MILES A soldier or legionary.
MILES GREGARIUS An ordinary foot soldier or legionary. Within Legion XXIV, a member in good standing who has been active and whos actions have earned him the title of Miles Gregarius.
MILES MANIPULARIS A soldier "private" in a Maniple Centuria (Century).
MILES PROBATUS A recruit
MILITARIS Military, pertaining to the military trades
MILITARY BELT See CINGULUM / Balteus
MILITIA Equestrian term of service in the military
MILLE PASSUS or "Roman Mile" A distance of a mille passus (1000 paces) equal to 1620 yards or 4820 feet or .913 of a 5280 foot modern mile.
MISSICUS A retired veteran
MISSILE / TELUM / TRAGULUM A Projectile
MISSIO CAUSARIA Honorable discharge for medical reasons
MISSIO IGNOMINIOSA Dishonorable discharge
MODIUS Metal container for dry measure
MULIO Mule Driver
MULUS A Mule
MULUS MARIANUS The nickname "Marius's Mule" applied to legionaries serving under the strict training standards set-down by Consul (General) Marius, circa 100BC; who established the highly trained and professional Roman Army as we have come to know it. A term applied to a heavily laden legionary soldier.
MUNICIPIA Towns who's inhabitants possessed partial rights of Roman Citizenship
MUNIFEX Soldier not exempt for duty or service
MUNITIO A fortification or garrison
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