SACELLUM Chapel or Shrine - The place in the Castra (fort-encampment) generally located near the Principia (headquarters or commanders quarters) where the Legion's Aquila (eagle) or a units Vexillum, Imago and Signum standards were kept when not in use. It served as the spritual center and could contain an alter to their Gods as well as other things of value that required safekeeping.
SACRAMENTUM A military oath or vow
SACELLUM Chapel, also the Shrine of Standards in the central "strong room" portion of the Principia Building of a Castra or fort, where the units money and treasures were kept
SAEPES PILA Pilum or Spear rack
SAEPES SCUTA Scutum or Shield rack.
SAGGITTARIUS - SAGITTARII An archer or Auxiliary army units of mounted archers or lancers.
SAGUM / SAGULUM / SAGUS Rectangular blanket size cloak or cape, also used as a bedroll
SAMBUCCA Assault tower containing covered or protected ladders for mounting walls
SALUTEM Greetings - Salutem Plurimam Dicit - Many or Most Greetings
SARCINA Marching Pack, generally made of goat skin and carried over the shoulder on a "T" pole "Furca". A Roman Legionaries "overnight bag".
SARISA A Pike / Long Spear
SCA The Society for Creative Anachronisms - International Organization recreating Pre 1700AD Medieval-Classical reenactment and full contact fighting using rattan weapons and non-historic body armor. www.sca.org
SCALA A Ladder
SCHOLA School, lecture hall, social group, learned discussion
SCORPION - SCORPIO Small, two man portable, torsion-powered, arrow shooting Ballista type catapult; term also applied to the soldier who manned the weapon.
SCUTATI A unit of troops bearing Scutum (shields)
SCUTUM Classic Roman Army Shield. Consult the "Equipment Page" for more details.
SEGMENTATA Medieval-Modern term for the segmented body armor (lorica) adopted by the Roman Army in the early 1st Century AD. The Roman name for this style of armor is not known. The term LAMENATA is now coming into use for Segmentata armor. Segmentata armor fell out of use during the early 3rd Century AD. Consult "Lorica Segmentata" on the Equipment Page for more details and a diagram.
SEMISPATHA A short sword
SEMISSALIS A junior NCO during the late Empire Period, circa 3rd-4th Century AD
SENATORS The highest class or group of Roman citizens, eligible for appointment as commanders (Legatio) of military legions or to govern over provinces.
SEPTEMBER Sacred to god "Vulcan", the seventh "Septimus" month of the 304 day, 10 month long "Romulus" Calendar, It became the ninth month of the 12 month "revised" Roman Republican Calendar in 200 BC / 552 AUC, Ab Urba Condita, "from the Founding of the City" (Rome), when February was moved between January and March / Martius and the Roman New Year was moved from March 1st (Kalends Martius) to January 1st (Kalends Januarius / Ianuarius). Consult "Roman Calendar" on our DateYearTime Page for a more details and explanation.
SEPTENTRIONALIS or SEPTEMTRIONALE North or Northern
SESTERIUS / SESTERTII Brass coins equal to 4 copper "assis" "pennies" and 1/4 of a silver "denarius" coin.
SEXTILIS Sacred to the god "Ceres", the sixth "Sextus" month of the 304 day, 10 month long "Romulus" Calendar, It became the eighth month of the 12 month "revised" Roman Republican Calendar in 200 BC / 552 AUC, Ab Urba Condita, "from the Founding of the City" (Rome), when February was moved between January and March / Martius and the Roman New Year was moved from March 1st (Kalends Martius) to January 1st (Kalends Januarius / Ianuarius). Consult "Roman Calendar" on our DateYearTime Page for a more details and explanation.
SHIP See NAVIS
SICA Knife / Curved - bent blade gladius style sword used by gladiators
SIGNUM The pole Standard that identified a Legion or a Cohort and which was carried before the Unit by the Signifer, while on the march . Also an ID tattoo worn by some legionaries.
SIGNIFER The person who carries the Signum or Standard of the Legion or Cohort.
SINESTRO / SINESTRAM To the Left, Left Hand, Left Side
SINGULARES Legionaries "chosen-selected" to serve the Emperor and provincial governors.
SOCII Allies of Rome
SOCII NAVALIS Naval Allies
SODALIS Comrade (non-military) See also "Contubernalis"
SOLDIER See MILES LEGIONARIUS GREGALIS IMMUNIS COMMILITO AUXILIA
SPATHA A Sword, generally refers to a long sword which came into use by Auxilliary calvery units in the Late Empire Period
SPECULATOR / SPECULARIUS A Spy or Scout providing internal security, later used as a term for a messenger See also "Explorator"
SPINA "Backbone" also the term for the structure dividing the middle of a Circus Maximus arena
S.P.Q.R. "Senatus Populusque Quiritum Romanorum" - "The Senate and People of Rome" - The Legend - Icon, originally of Republican Rome, and later carried on into the Imperial Period.
SQUAMATA Fish scale body armor "lorica", having scales pointing up or down and sometimes, both ways on the same armor set.
STATIO A military posting, tour of duty
STATIONARIUS Soldier at an outpost position or station
STATU / UM State / States
STELA Pillar or column or an upright grave stone
STIMULI A field of sharp iron points, some with "beards", embedded in the ground and extending about 5 cm (20 inches) above the surface. Stimuli were generally employed in front of the Lilia, Cippi and Fossa as the first part in a system of perimeter defenses known as a "Garden of Caesar", as used by Julius Caesar in his seige of Alesia in 52 BC.
STIPENDIUM Pay or Stipend to a soldier on campaign
STRENGTH Vires - Strength and Honor / Vires et Honos
STRIGA A pair of barracks buildings to house a "Manipulus" (Maniple) unit.
SUBARMALIS A padded garment worn under armor for comfort and better fit. Illustration
SUBLIGACULUM / SUBLIGAR Loincloth
SUDES Latin for stake or pike. The primary of two latin terms for a palisades stake, used as a perimeter defense of an encampment. Also termed a VALLES, it was a wooden stake 4 to 5 feet long, tapered to points at both ends with a cut out center hand grip. Also used to create a palisade or picket defense in front of a position prior to an enemys expected charge or attack. These stakes have also been incorrectly termed "Pila Muralis" or "Wall Spear".
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