LAST  UPDATED  June  21  2013

A Compilation assembled to more easily comprehend the  History of Ancient Rome  and its relationship to other Events in  Ancient World History 

fascesright250.jpg (11005 bytes)      aquila1.jpg (15661 bytes)      fascesleft250.jpg (10899 bytes)   

The Fasces, which was the symbol of a Magistrates authority,  and the Aquila or Eagle.  The Aquila was the Symbol of a Roman Legion and was carried by the Aquilifer at the head of the Legion while on the march.   The "fall" or loss of a Legion,s  Aquila Standard   was considered a disgrace to the Legion's reputation. 

ROMAN  "IMPERIAL"  PERIOD     27 BC  to   565 AD

27 BC -14 AD  Caesar AUGUSTUS (Octavian)  -  Emperor (Julio-Claudian )   Grandnephew of  Julius Caesar

     27 BC    Pantheon built for the first time under Agrippa 

     26 BC    The "Pax Romana",  the 200 years of "Roman Peace" begins  and  comes to an end  c.180 AD

     22 BC    City and port of Caesarea completed by Herod as seat of Roman Government in Palestine

     20 BC    Herod begins reconstruction of   Temple (third) on Mount Moriah at Jerusalem 

     19 BC  May 12  Temple of Marsulator dedicated on Capitoline Hill 

  12-9 BC    Romans conquer Germany as far as the Elbe River

     10 BC    Herod dedicates restoration of the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem

       6 BC    Postulated year for Birth of  Jesus Christ,  probably on April 17, when Jupiter was "In the East", as a morning star,  and was being eclipsed by the Moon and was in close conjunction with Venus; in the constellation "Ares" (the Ram representing Judea); indicating to ancient astrologers, the birth of a King, or person of importance  in Judea.   See  DateYearTime  for further explanation    

        4 BC   Death of   "Herod the Great", Governor of Palestine for Rome 

        2 BC  May 12  The Forum of Augustus is dedicated  

        1 BC  June 23 - Traditional date for Birth of John the Baptist 

        1 BC   Roman Year 753 AUC   See  DateYearTime  for further explanation

        1 AD   Roman Year 754 AUC   See  DateYearTime  for further explanation 

        4 AD Feb-21  Death of Gaius Caesar, son of Augustus and hoped for successor to Augustus

        6 AD    Dedication of the Temple of Castor & Pollux by future Emperor Tiberius

        9 AD    Three Legions (XVII-XVIII-XVIX, 25,000) under Varus,  wiped-out in Tuetoburger Vald (forest) in Germany by Cherusci forces (30,000+) under command of Arminius Herrman  -  Varus commits suicide and the Roman Frontier is pulled-back to the Rhine River 

        9 AD    Wang Mang deposes Han Dynasty in China

      10 AD    City of Rome boasts a population of one million.  Not until London in 1850's will another city have a population of one million.

       14-37    TIBERIUS Claudius Nero   -  Emperor (Julio-Claudian)  Stepson of Augustus

          14      Pont du Gard Viaduct  near Nimes, France is completed 

          17  May 26  Germanicus celebrates German victories 

          17      Death of  LIVY (Titus Livius  born 59 BC)  Great Roman Historian  

      c. 23      Birth of  PLINY the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus, died 79 AD)  Roman Naturalist and Historian;   in Como,  in the Po Valley near Swiss border

          25      Han Dynasty in China is restored 

          26      Jesus chooses 12 disciples and commences his ministry

          30  April 7  A postulated date Jesus Christ is crucified, however, April 3, 33 is considered to be the more correct date

          33  April 3  The postulated and deemed to be more correct date of Jesus Christ's crucifixion 

          36      Birth of  Flavius JOSEPHUS (died c.94)   Great Jewish Historian and soldier 

          37      Death of Tiberius at Misenum 

          37      Dec-15   Birth of future Emperor Nero         

          39      Birth of Future Emperor Titus 

       37-41    Gaius Caesar Germanicus (CALIGULA)  -  Emperor (Julio-Claudian)  Grandnephew of Tiberius

          40       June 13  Birth of Gnaeus Julius Agricola, who will later conquer Wales and Northern England

          41      Murder of Emperor Caligula at Ludi Palatini and Claudius proclaimed Emperor by the Praetorian Guard

      41-54    Tiberius CLAUDIUS Nero Germanicus  -  Emperor (Julio-Claudian)  Uncle of Caligula 

          43     Battle of Medway River, near Rochester, Kent during Roman Conquest of Britain.  Rome went on to secure Thames River crossing and captured Camulodunum (Colchester). 

          45  March 17  Julius Caesar defeats Pompey's sons and Labienus at Munda 

          50     Claudius adopts future Emperor Nero 

       54-68   NERO Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus  -  Emperor (Julio-Claudian)  Stepson of Claudius

          63     Completion of  Third (Herod's) Temple in Jerusalem 

          63     Strong earthquake damages Pompeii and Herculaneum presaging the eventual eruption of Vesuvius in 79  

          64     Great Fire of Rome (wrongly attibuted to Nero) destroys 70% of the City, which allowed rebuilding and improvement of the City

      c. 65     Bible Book of  Mark of the New Testament is thought to have been written

          66     Jewish zealots seize the mountaintop fortress at   Masada in their revolt against Rome

          68       Nero's Golden Palace "Domus Aurea" completed

          68      June 9  Nero commits suicide

        68-69   Servius Sulpicius GALBA   -  Proclaimed Emperor by his solders

          69      M. Salvius OTHO  -   Emperor - Military Commander

          69      Aulus VITELLIUS  -   Emperor - Military Commander

          69      Dec-22  Vitellius killed in street battle in Rome by soldiers of Vespasian, who then becomes Emperor

        69-79   T. Flavius Vespasianus (VESPASIAN)  -  Emperor (Flavian Dynasty)  Military Commander

          70      May 31  Titus captures 1st Wall of City of Jerusalem  

          70      Third (Herod's) Temple destroyed by Romans during subjugation of Jewish rebels

          70  July 1, Titus hailed as Emperor in Alexandria 

          72      Construction of the Flavian Amphitheater (the Colosseum) commences

       72-73    Roman forces (7,000  Legion X and Auxiliaries) assault and overcome 1000 Jewish zealots in the mountain fortress of  Masada on western shore of the Dead Sea in Palestine 

          77      Pliny the Elder produces first Roman encyclopedia; 37 books covering 35,000 subject from 4000 writers

           79     Great Eruption of Vesuvius which buried and destroyed the Cities of Pompeii and nearby Herculaneum with fiery ash flows and killed  PLINY the Elder (born 23 AD) Naturalist & Historian, who had come to investigate the eruption.

           79 June 23  Death of Emperor Vespasian 

        79-81   TITUS Flavius Vespasianus   -  Emperor (Flavian Dynasty)  Son of Vespasian

    c. 80-85   Bible Books of  Matthew and Luke of the New Testiment are thought to have been written

           80     Flavian Amphitheater (the Colosseum, incomplete) is inaugurated with 100 days of festivities

        81-96   T. Flavius Domitianus (DOMITIAN)  -  Emperor (Flavian Dynasty)  Son of Vespasian 

           84     Battle of Mons (Mount) Graupius, n/w of Aberdeen, when Agricola and Roman Auxiliary forces (no Legions involved) gained control over Caledonia (northern Britain) from local tribes. 

       c. 90     Flavian Amphitheater (the Colosseum) is fully completed

       c. 92   Bible Book of  John  of the New Testament is thought to have been written  

       c. 95   Bible Book Acts of the Apostles of the New Testament is thought to have been written as a sequel to Book of Luke. 

        96-98   M. Cocceius NERVA  -   Emperor (Adoptive)  Elected Interim Ruler

      98-117   Marcus Ulpius Traianus (TRAJAN)  -  First non-Italian Emperor - Adopted Son of Nerva 

      c.100      Death of   Flavius JOSEPHUS (born  37AD)  Great Jewish Historian and soldier

      c.100      Seismagraph developed in China

    101-102   First Dacian War

    105-107   Second Dacian War 

         109  June 23 - The Aqua Traiana aquducts into Rome are officially dedicated 

         112       Trajan's Forum completed 

         113       Trajan's Column erected,  relating exploits of the Dacian Wars (101-102 & 105-107 AD) 

         113  May 12  Restored Temple of Venus Genetrix is dedicated 

         117  May 26  Trajan returns to Rome after Dacian victories

    117-138   P. Aelius Hadrianus (HADRIAN)  -   Emperor - Ward of Trajan 

         121  April 26  Birth of Marcus Aurelius     

         122       Emperor Hadrian visits Britain - plans construction of wall across northern Britain and returns to Rome

         123       Hadrian's Wall construction by Roman Legions begins

         123      Pantheon (origins 27-25 BC - Agrippa)  reconstructed by Hadrian 

         135      Emperor Hadrian puts down Second Jewish Revolt, bans Jews from Jerusalem, rebuilds the City and renames it Aelia Capitolina - Judea becomes the Roman Province Syria Palaestina (Palestine)   

         136  March 17  Future emperor Marcus Aurelius dons the Toga Virilis (of adulthood)

         138      Hadrian adopts future Emperor Antoninis Pius

    138-161    T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (ANTONINUS PIUS)  -  Emperor - Adopted by Hadrian

       c150      Hadrian's Wall completed - 80 roman (4884 ft) miles, 74 modern (5280 ft) miles long

         180  March 17  Death of Marcus Aurelius at Bononia 

    161-180   Marcus Aelius Aurelius Verus (MARCUS AURELIUS)   -  Emperor - Adopted by Antoninus Pius

    161-190   Golden Age of the Roman Empire  under   Marcus Aurlius  and  Commodus

    161-169   L. Aurelius Verus (LUCIUS VERUS)  -   Associate Emperor - Adopted by Antoninus Pius - served with  Marcus Aurelius

         176     Column of Marcus Aurelius begun  (completed by Commodus) 

   180-192   L. Aurelius COMMODUS  -  Emperor - Son of Marcus Aurelius

      c.180     The "Pax Romana",  the "Roman Peace" ends  200 years after its beginning   c.26 BC

      c.190      General Decline of the Roman Empire begins

      c.190      The Germanic Goths of Scandinavian origin, migrate to the shores of the Black Sea 

         193     P. Helvius PERTINAX  -  Proclaimed Emperor by the Praetorian Guard

         193     M. DIDIUS JULIANUS  -  Emperor - Bought office from Praetorian Guard

    193-194   G. PESCENNIUS NIGER  -  Emperor

    193-197   Decimus CLODIUS ALBINUS  -  Emperor

    193-211   Lucius SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS  -  Proclaimed Emperor (Severen Dynasty)

         196     Septimius Severus gaines control of Byzantium, later (330) Constantinople, now (1930) Istanbul

         197     Septimius Severus lifts ban on marriage for legionary solders

         203     Arch of Septimuius Severus  erected

         203     Emperor Septimus Severus constructs large hippodrome (gr. hippos ('ιππος), horse, and dromos (δρομος) path or way) in Constantinople for chariot and horse races.  

     c. 210     Adoption of "Old" (Mosaic Covenant, "Scriptures") and "New" (Covenant of Christ) for the two Testament divisions of the Bible. 

         211     Death of Severus - His son Carracalla assumes title of Pontifex Maximus  

    211-217   M. Aurelius Antoninus (CARACALLA)  -   Emperor (Severen Dynasty)  Son of Severus

    211-212   P. Septimius GETA  -  Emperor (Severen Dynasty)  Son of Severus,  ruled jointly with Caracalla

         217      Colosseum gutted by fire and is refurbished

    217-218   M. Opellius MACRINUS  -  Proclaimed Emperor by his solders (Severen Dynasty) 

    218-222   M. Aurelius Antoninus (ELAGABALUS)  -   Emperor (Severen Dynasty)  Cousin of Caracalla

    222-235   M. Aurelius SEVERUS ALEXANDER  -   Emperor (Servern Dynasty)  Cousin of Elagabalus

    c. 325     Emperor Constantine renovates and enlarges the "Severus" hippodrome (gr. hippos ('ιππος), horse, and dromos (δρομος) path or way) in Constantinople to be  450' long, 350' wide, 130' high equal in size to 15 football fields and seating over 100,000 people.  

    235-238   G. Julius Verus MAXIMINUS  -  Proclaimed Emperor by his solders

        238      GORDIAN-I  -  Made Emperor by the Senate

        238      GORDIAN-II  -  Son of Gordian-I    ruled jointly with his father 

        238      Balbinus  -  Elected Joint Emperor by the Senate

        238      Pupienus Maximus  -  Elected Joint Emperor with Balbinus by the Senate 

        238    May 10   Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus, Thracian Emperor is murdered

    238-244   M. Antonius Gordianus (GORDIAN III)  -   Emperor - Son of Gordian-II

    244-249   M. Julius Philippus (PHILIP the Arabian)  -   Emperor - Assassin of Gordian-III 

        247      The Goths begin to harrass and raid the outer provinces of the Roman Empire

    249-251  G. Messius Quintus Traianus Decius (TRAJAN DECIUS)  -  Proclaimed Emperor by his solders

        251      Goths defeat and kill  Emperor Decius  at Abrittus,  Mosea Inferior (west coast of Black Sea)

        251       HOSTILIANUS  -  Son of Decius - Colleague of Gallus

    251-253   G. Vibius TREBONIANUS GALLUS  -   Emperor - Military Commander

    253-260   P. Licinius Valerianus (VALERIAN)  -   Emperor - Military Commander

    253-268   P. Licinius Egnatius GALLIENUS  -   Co-Emperor  later sole Emperor - Son of Valerian

   259-268   M. Cassianius Latinius POSTUMUS  -   Emperor (Gallic)  Assassinated

        260      Gallic Empire of Gaul (France), and later Britain and Spain,  created after revolt by Postumus, Governor of Lower Germany

        260      Emperor Valerian captured by Persians at  Edessa,  Mesopotamia

        260      Persians sack Antioch  -  Franks sack Tarraco (east coast of Spain) 

        262      Ephesus (modern Kucuk Menderes, W. Turkey) sacked by the Goths and the great Temple of Diana (Artemis) is destroyed.

    268-270   M. Piavonius VICTORINUS  -  Emperor (Gallic-Germany)

    268-270   M. Aurelius CLAUDIUS II (GOTHICUS)  -   Emperor (Illyrian) - Military Commander

        268      Goths and Heruli sack Athens  -  Gallienus defeats Goths at Naissus,  Moesia Superior (Balkans)

        269      Spanish Provinces return to Roman allegiance 

        270      Traditional date for the beheading of St. Valentine 

    270-273   G. Pius Esuvius TETRICUS  -  Emperor (Gallic)

    270-275   L. Domitius Aurelianus (AULERIAN)  -  Emperor (Illyrian)  Chosen by Claudius-II as successor

    271-275   Aurelian Walls around Rome (perimeter 12 miles) constructed due to the menace of barbarian invasion

        272      Romans abandon  Dacia  

        273      Gallic Empire territories re-absorbed into Western Roman Empire after Battle of Chalon-sur-Marne (Belgium)

        273      Revolt by City of Palmyra  put-down  as Rome reclaims control of Persia

    275-276   M. Claudius TACITUS  -  Emperor (Illyrian)  Chosen by the Senate

    276-282   M. Aurelius PROBUS  -  Emperor (Illyrian)  Military Commander

    282-283   M. Aurelius CARUS  -  Proclaimed Emperor (Illyrian) by the Praetorian Guard

    283-284   M. Aurelius Numerius Numerianus (NUMERIAN)   -  Emperor (Illyrian)  Son of Carus

    283-285   M. Aurelius CARINUS  -  Emperor (Illyrian)  Son of Carus

    284-305   G. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (DIOCLETIAN)   -  Emperor (Illyrian, Tetrarchy-Senior-East)

        284      Diocletian institutes new calender - in use until gradual adoption of  BC-AD calendar of 532 AD

    286-305   M. Aurelius Valerius MAXIMIANUS  -   Emperor (Tetrarchy-Senior-West)

        293       Tetrarchy System of  Senior and Junior Emperors  in the West and the East established

    c. 300       Evidence of embalming or artificial mummification in Roman Greece

        301       Diocletian issues edict on maximum prices in attempt to check inflation 

        303     Great Persecution of Diocletian begins in Nicomedia 

        305     May 1  Diocletian voluntarily abdicates,  forcing Maximianus to do so as well

    305-306   Flavius Valerius CONSTANTIUS  -   Emperor (Tetrarchy-West)

    305-311   C. GALERIUS Valerius Maximianus  -   Emperor (Tetrarchy-East)

    306-312   M. Aurelius Valerius MAXENTIUS  -   Usurper (Tetrarchy-West) - Son of Maximianus

        307      Maxentius begins construction of his Basilca on the north boundary of the Roman Forum;  later finished by Constantine after his defeat of Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge in 312

    308-313   MAXIMIN  -  Co-Emperor - Nephew of Galerius

    308-324   C. Valerius Licinianus LICINUS  -  Emperor (Tetrarchy-East)  Appointed by Galerius as Emperor in the West  later became Emperor of the East 

        312      October,  Battle of Milvian Bridge (Saxa Rubra "Red Stones") where Constantine defeated Maxentius to become the sole ruler of Rome

    312-337   CONSTANTINE, I  "The Great"   -  Sole Emperor after 324 AD - Son of Constantius

        313     Constantine convenes the Synod of Rome at the request of Christian bishops to deal with Donatism 

        313     Edict for Toleration of Christianity issued by Eastern Emperor Licinus

        315     Arch of Constantine erected to celebrate his victory over Maxentius in 312  

        316     Constantine's Edict of Milan declares a tolerance for the practice of the Christian Religion within the Empire and  omits pagan ceremonies 

     c. 318    Constantine declares December 25th  -  then celebrated as the feast of the Winter Solstice and the birth of Mithras, the Persian god of renewal  -  as the Birth Date of Jesus Christ in an effort to establish Christianity over paganism.  Dec-25th was officially decreed as the Birth of Christ by Pope Julius in 349.   

         321    Constantine moves the Christian Sabbath Day from Saturday to Sunday due to Christ's Resurrection having been on a Sunday. 

     c. 322    1st  St.Peter's Church in Rome and churches over Holy Places in Jerusalem and Bethlehem constructed 

     c. 322    Riding Stirrups in use in China 

        323    Constantine issues edict abolishing gladiatorial combat;  but is unable to completely suppress the games

        325      First Council of Nicaea,  the first ever ecumenical conclave,  decrees Easter to be the Sunday following the first full moon after the Vernal Equinox, set Dec-25 as the date for Christus Natalis (Christmas), fixed the dates of important Christian Festivals and establishes the New Testament Canon as we know it today

        325     Sept-18  Battle of Chrysoplis - Constantine the Great gains control over Roman Empire

    c. 326      Constantine's mother Helena makes pilgrimage to Jeruselem, founds Church of Holy Sepulchre and searches for the True Cross.

        330      Byzantium is renamed Constantinople and established as the capitol of  Eastern Roman Empire

        332      Creation of the "Constantine Christian Bible" by Bishop Eusebius, consisting of 18 books selected by Emperor Constantine with 50 copies produced.    

     c.336      Dedication of the first Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem

        336      Dec-25  The first recorded celebration of Christmas takes place in Rome

        337      May 22  Constantine the Great dies, proclaiming himself the 13th Apostle.  He was baptized a Christian shortly before his death, but not on his death bed as rumored.  

    337-340   Flavius Claudius Constantinus (CONSTANTINE, II )   -  Co-Emperor - Son of Constantine-I

    337-350   Flavius Julius CONSTANS  -  Co-Emperor - Son of of Constantine-I

    337-361   Flavius Julius CONSTANTIUS ( II )  -   Co-Emperor - Son of Constantine-I

        342      Imperial Edict prohibits public sacrifices

        349      Pope Julius officially decrees December 25th as the date to celebrate Christmas as the Feast of the Nativity.  This date had originally been declared as the Birth date of Christ by Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in 318.   

    350-353   Flavius Magnus MAGNENTIUS  -  Usurper in the West of  Constans' throne

        356      Pagan Cult Practices banned by Imperial Decree

        356       First recorded use of anesthesia for surgery occurs in the Orient

    c. 360      Romans close the great Egyptian Temple at Karnak  -  Ethiopia becomes first country-nation to fully adopt Christianity

        360      Original Hagia Sophia Church dedicated in Constantinople 

    360-363   Flavius Claudius Julianus (JULIAN   "The Apostate"  -  Emperor - Nephew of Constantine-I

        363      Julian murdered - Paganism restored and Pagan Cults tolerated by Imperial Legislation 

    363-364   Flavius Jovianus (JOVIAN)  -  Elected   Emperor by the Army  -  restores Christianity as favored religion

    364-375   Flavius Valentinianus (VALENTINIAN, I )  -   Proclaimed  Emperor-West by the Army

    364-378   Flavius VALENS  -  Emperor-East   (House Valentinain) - Brother of  Valentinian-I

        367      Present New Testament Bible Canon of 27 Books written in Koine' idiom of Greek comes into use. 

     c. 372     The Huns from north-central Asia invade the lower Volga Valley and advance westward, driving the Germanic Ostrogoths and Visagoths before them, leading to the great migrations that lead to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire that changed the face of Europe.

        376       The "Goths" (Visagoths "Wise Goths" & Ostro Goths "Bright Goths) appear on the lower Danube River frontier of Roman Empire

        378, 9 Aug - Roman Army under Valens, destroyed (40,000 killed) by Visagoth-Ostrogoth forces in Battle of Adrianople  on the Greek and Bulgarian frontiers.  This battle demonstrated the superiority of calvery over infantry that would last for the next thousand years.

    375-383   Flavius Gratianus (GRATIAN)  -   Emperor-West  (House Valentinain) - Son of  Valentinian-I

    379-395   Flavius THEODOSIUS- I  "The Great"  -   Appointed Emperor-East  (House Valentinian) by Gratian

        380       Theodosius and Gratian declare Christianity to be the Official Religion of the Empire

    383-388   MAGNUS MAXIMUS  -  Usurper in the West   (House Valentinian)

    388-392   Valentinianus (VALENTINIAN, II )  -   Emperor - Son of  Valentinian-I0

        391      All Pagan sacrifices outlawed by Theodosius

        392       May 15  Valentinianus II is murdered

    392-394   EUGENIUS  -  Usurper in the West   (House Valentinian)

    394-395   THEODOSIUS, I  -  Sole Emperor and the Last Ruler of the United (east & west) Roman Empire

        394      Battle of   Frigidus where Theodosius crushed Pagan inspired forces of the West

        394      Theododius bans the Olympic Games as they were considered a pagen ritual.  The Games are believed to have continued for a time; but finally ceased circa 500 until the modern Olympic Games begin in 1896.

        394      Alter of Victory removed for the final time from the Senate Curia as it was then viewed as a symbol of paganism - Disposition unknown 

        394      Eternal Flame of Rome allowed to die-out after more than 1000 years

        395      Edict of Theodosius mandates under pain of death that Christianity be the only religion of the Roman Empire

    c. 395      The "Vulgate" (common edition), the original latin version of the Bible is prepared by St. Jerome at request of Pope St. Damasus-I.  In 1546 it will be adopted as the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.

       395        Sparta sacked by the Goths

    395-402   ARCADIUS  -   Emperor-East   (House Theodosius) - Son of  Theodosius-I

    395-423   HONORIUS  -  Emperor-West  (House Theodosius) - Son of Theodosius-I

    402-450   THEODOSIUS II  -  Emperor-East - Son of Arcadius

       404       Emperor Honorius permanently bans gladitorial games and combat

       404       Original Hagia Sophia Church in Constantinople destroyed by fire 

    406-450   Archer calvary of Attila the Hun using recurve compound bows, conquers most of Europe until defeated at Chalons in 451

       410       Visagoths (Germans) under Alaric sack Rome City placing Attalus on the throne as Emperor - the first such invasion of the City of Rome by a foreign power in 800 Years

       410        Rome abandons Britain after a presence of 350 years 

       415        Hagia Sophia Church restored by Theodosius-II after fire of 404 

       421        CONSTANTIUS-III  -  Named Joint-Emperor by Honorius

    423-425   JOHANNES  -  Emperor-West

    424-455   Placidius Valentinanus (VALENTINIAN, III )  Emperor-West - Nephew of Honorius - Son of Constantius-III

       426        The Olympic Games Shrine at Olympia in Greece is burned and destroyed as a vestige of paganism

       432        Emperor Theodosius forced to pay tribute to invading Huns from north central Asia

       438         Roman Legal Code "Codex Theodosianus" issued by Theodosius-II, Emperor of the East to reduce and systematize the complex mass of law issued since the reign of Constantine-I

   c. 450        Stirrups introduced into Europe by the invading Huns

       450        Rome refuses further tribute to the Huns, who then invade Italy and Gaul

       450        Sack of Rome City by the Vandals, who pillaged and burned the City for up to three weeks!

    450-457   MARCIAN  -  Emperor-East - Brother-in-Law of Theodosius-II

       451        Huns defeated at Chalons (Mery-sur-Seine, north of Troyes, France) by Roman General Aetius.  The Huns, however, ravage Italy and Gaul before withdrawing after Attila's death in 453

       453        Attila, leader of the Huns, dies

       455        Petronius MAXIMUS  -  Emperor-West - bought office by bribery

       455       Vandals, from Africa, under King Gaiseric sack Rome

       455        May 31  Petronius Maximus, Senator/Emperor is lynched 

    455-456   AVITUS  -  Emperor-West - Placed in office by the Goths

    457-461   Julius Maiorianus (MAJORIAN)  -  Puppet Emperor-West  appointed by Ricimer

    457-474   LEO-I  -  Chosen  Emperor-East   by the Senate 

        461      Traditional year of Saint Patrick's death

    461-465   Libius SEVERUS  -  Puppet Emperor-West   appointed by  Ricimer   

    467-472   Procopius ANTHEMIUS  -  Appointed   Emperor-West  by  Ricimer and Leo-I

        472      Anicius OLYBRIUS  -  Appointed  Emperor-West  by  Ricimer

    473-474   GLYCERIUS  -  Appointed   Emperor-West  by  Leo-I 

    474-475   JULIUS NEPOS  -  Appointed   Emperor-West  by  Leo-I 

    474-491   ZENO  -  Emperor-East

    475-476   Romulus Augustus (AUGUSTULUS)  -  Last Emperor-West - put in office by Orestes his father and deposed by the Goths under Odoacer

        476       Traditional  Ending  Date  for   the  Western  Roman  Empire  upon the deposing of  Augustulus by the Goths 

    490-500   Battle of Mons (Mount) Badon, where King Arthur defeated Saxon leader Cerdic, which halted Saxon expansion in Britain for 50 years.  

    491-518   ANASTASIUS  -  Emperor-East

     c. 500      Constantinople near 500,000 population

     c. 514      Mayan city of Chichen Itza founded in central Yucatan, Mexico

    518-527   JUSTIN, I  - Emperor-East

         523      Last recorded event using beasts in the Colosseum 

     c. 526      Christian Monk Dionysius Exiguus, "Dennis the Little"; in order to better determine the correct date of Easter, develops a new calendar based on his estimated year of when Christ was born and to standardize the chaotic methods for the numbering of years then in use.  This new year sequence would become (in the 1500's), our current  BC-AD / BCE-CE system for numbering of years.  The "Year-Zero" was not utilized,  as the concept of a number value of  "zero" did not exist in the roman-numeral system in use at that time.   Consult  Year-One - BC-AD  for more details.

    527-565   JUSTINIAN, I  -  Last Emperor-East   (and of Classical Rome)

    c. 527       Gothic seige of Vitage, which cut the aquaduct to City of Rome

    528-529   Justinian purges Pagans from administration of Rome 

        529      Justinian restores Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem 

        529       Neoplatonic Philosophers of Athens migrate to Persia 

        532       Second Hagia Sophia Church in Constantinople destroyed by fire, caused by a riot.  The fire destroyed one third of the city.  

        534       "Corpus Juris Civilis" codex-caudex (tablet-ledger) of 1 million words issued by Justinian-I, based on  the "Codex Theodosianus" issued by Theodosius-II, Emperor of the East in 438.  The "Corpus Juris Civilis" became the basis of modern civil law. 

        535      Imperial Laws enacted against heretics, Jews and Pagans in North Africa

        535      Postulated Super Volcanic eruption of Krakatau, many times greater than its great eruption in 1883 in the Java Straits, is thought to have split Java and Sumatra into the current two islands. 

        537      Third and current Hagia Sophia Church in Constantinople dedicated 

        546      Second Purge of Pagans from Administration 

        546      Rome sacked  -  Belisarius retreats

        550      Badvila establishes Ostrogothic power in Italy with Rome as capitol 


        562     Third Purge of Pagans from Administation


SOURCES:  Penquin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome - Viking Press - 1995 

                      RogueClassicism, David Meadows  www.atrium-media.com/rogueclassicism  

                      Time line of  NovaRoma - Ancient Rome Reborn  website

                      Rand McNally  HistoMap of World History 

                    "Information Please" on-line encyclopedia 

                      The Battle Book - Bryan Perrett - 1992

* *  SPQR  * *  753 BC  -  2205 YEARS  -  1453 AD   * *  SPQR  * *






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