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Left to Right:  A pair of bronze wrist cuffs and a wrist torque, and to their right, a pair of neck torque's.  Such cuffs and torque's were of Celtic origin and were adopted by Roman legionary soldiers as decorations and trophies of war.  It could be said, that several Celts and Gauls made the "supreme sacrifice" so that the Commander could obtain these items.  Next is a brass "Patera" or ladle.  These Patera and other such items were generally formed from one piece of metal, including the handle.  Not an easy task, requiring good metal working skills.  At far right is a carved wooden handled bowl or scope, used to hold gruel or some other probably unappetizing sustenance.  A portion of a Sudis or palisades stake is shown above.  Note the carved out hand grip.  These stakes were hewn from 4 x 4 inch lumber and are of a larger size for these perimeter defense items; which ranged in size from 2 x 2 inch up to 4 x 4 inch and 4 to 5 feet long.  See  SUDIS  in the glossary for more details.

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Left to Right:  A canteen with brass decoration and carrying handle.  These canteens were lined with wax to inhibit  rust and leakage and had a press fit stopper.  Next are two items of personal hygiene, a sponge on a stick and a brass "scapula" or body scraper.  The sponge-stick served in place of "Scott Tissue".  After all, 2000 years ago there were no old newspapers or phone books handy for the purpose.  In a latrine facility, you would rinse out the sponge in the running water flowing in a gutter in the floor in front of your position.  In the field, the nearest stream would have to suffice.  The saying "getting the wrong end of the stick" relates to this item of very personal hygiene.  The Romans did not have soap, as we know it.  They would coat themselves with oil and then scrape off the oil and dirt using a "scapula" or body scraper.  This is very similar to what we do today when we lather-up with soap, which is in realty, hardened oil, and then wipe and rinse it off with a wash cloth.  

Next to the Right, are iron eating utensils on a wood bowl.   An ingenious small wood spoon with a chopper edge on the end of the handle, rests below the bowl.  The fork was not known in Roman times and did not come into use until about 1100 AD.  At Far Right, are several "fibulae" or ancient type pins, used as today, to secure garments, cloaks or other clothing items and decorations.   They are of Celtic origin.  The large round fibula at the top is the oldest type, while the lower three fibulae are of a "safety pin" design having the point of the pin housed or protected by a clip.  And you thought the safety pin was invented in the late 1800's?  



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Three helmets of various styles rest above an array of other equipment.  From left to right:  a bronze "Coolus" style from the early 1st Century AD "Imperial" period;  an "Italic" style type "D" with applied bronze Eagle and Temple designs, from the late 1st Century AD;  and a "Gallic" style type "J", the classic icon of the 1st Century AD Imperial Roman Army helmet.   Below the helmets, from left to right, are a "Sarcina" or marching pack bag;  a "Maintz" pattern gladius sword, with ivory grip, resting on the heel area of a typical "caligae" sandal boot;  a hand-held wooden food dish or drinking ladle;  a small bronze "Ligula or Patera" ladle;   a "Pompeii" pattern gladius sword, with wood grip, resting on a Caligae boot, turned up-side-down to show the pattern of hob-nails protecting its sole;  a wooden spoon and a typical gladius scabbard, with shoulder "baldric" belt.


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Two Sudis (Palisades Stakes) flank a wooden equipment chest supporting a set of Newstead Lorica armor, Imperial Gallic style helmet and Maintz pattern Gladius (sword).  Note the lack of hinges on the shoulder plates of the Newstead armor.   A Baltius (military belt) is surrounded by another Gallic Helmet on the left;  an Italic Helmet, on the right;  and a "Sarcina" (marching pack bag).    Note that the Italic Helmet has no eyebrow ridges 


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