LEGION XXIV MA
TIME-LINE CRONOLOGY OF
EARLY AND ETRUSCAN ROME AND RELATED HISTORY
A Compilation assembled to more easily comprehend the History of Ancient Rome and its relationship to other Events in Ancient World History
Last Updated on December 18, 2012
PRE - ROMAN PERIOD
c. 2 million BC Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age begins with earliest human development
c.640,000 BC Super volcanic eruption creates Yellowstone Park region
c.73,000 BC Effects from the super volcanic eruption of Toba in Sumatra, after a 700,000 year slumber, the greatest eruption in the last 2 million years, reduces world-wide human population to as few as 7,000 individuals
c.50,000 BC Bow and Arrow in use in Africa
c.33,000 BC Supervolcanic eruption creates the caldera in which the Bay and City of Naples now resides. Vesuvius is a remnant of that eruption
c.25,000 BC African hunters using flint arrowheads and shafts fletched with feathers
>10,000 BC Mesolithic (Middle Stone) Age succeeds Paleolithic Age
c.8000 BC City of Jericho founded, the oldest inhabited settlement on earth.
c.7000 BC Neolithic (New Stone) Age begins in S/W Asia.
c.6000 BC First evidence of writing - European hunters using strong yew bows
c.5600 BC Postulated time of the Biblical Noah's Flood in the Black Sea region
c.5508 BC Byzantine equivalent date for the Creation of the World
c.5500 BC Evidence of prehistoric culture in Sumeria region of southern Mesopotamia
4977 BC Birth of the Universe according to Johannes Kepler
c.3761 BC Jewish equivalent date for the Creation of the World
c.3550 BC Megiddo (Armageddon- N. Israel) established, prophesized in "Revelations"to be the site of the ultimate battle between the forces of Good and Evil on the Final Day of God
c.3500 BC First pyramids, made of earth, constructed in Peru.
c.3400 BC The Bronze (copper + tin) Age begins following the end of the Neolithic (new stone) Age (from 10,000BC)
c.3300 BC Sumerians have the first kings, develop cuneiform writing, the wheel, the plow, the 60 second minute - Sumerian city-states emerge
c.3200 BC Menes (Narmer) King of Upper Egypt conquers Lower Egypt forming single (Old) Kingdom - Development of hieroglyphics in Egypt. Embalming of the dead developed in Egypt.
c.3100 BC First Dynasty of Egypt - Mesopotamia inhabited - Grapes first crushed and fermented to produce win
3114 BC Aug-13 Mythical beginning of the Maya Civilization and their so-called "Long-Count" calendar period of 5125 years, postulated to end on Dec-21, 2012
c.3000 BC Ur and Uruk, the first recognized city-states on Earth, are established in the Sumer region of Southern Mesopotamia (Iraq) in the south end of the Fertile Crescent, where records for the first Kings, the wheel and the plow are found.
c.3000 BC Potatos first cultivated in S.America - Corn grown as a crop in Mexico - Cotton grown in the Indus Valley - Ox-Plow used in Europe
c.2950 BC Jericho developed in Palestine - The oldest known inhabited city on Earth
c.2800 BC Ancient Minoan Culture on Island of Crete in Aegean Sea
c.2800 BC First phase of Stonehenge construction of wood
c.2750 BC Imhotep, the first great physician and architect in history, constructs the first (stepped) stone pyramid at Saqqara, Egypt under ruler Zoser; the first great monumental building built by man.
c.2700 BC Sumerian culture develops in Mesopotamia - Temples and Palaces built of brick
c.2700 BC Spoked wheels come into use
c.2550 BC Khufu (Cheops-4th Dynasty) completes first Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt; which reigns as the tallest structure on Earth until completion of the Eiffel Tower in 1889
c.2500 BC The horse is domesticated in China
c.2500 BC Egyptian warriors in chariots using composite bows of horn and wood, and half-once arrows with hollow reed shafts with a range of 400 yards
c.2340 BC Akkadian Dynasty, the worlds first empire, established by Sargon of Sumeria; which falls in 2180BC.
2279 BC Sargon the Great of Sumeria dies
c.2200 BC Development of Troy II, III, IV
2197 BC Fall of Akkad in Sumeria to invading barbarians from Persia and northeast
c.2180 BC Babylonians build first underwater tunnel under the Euphrates River using bricks and "cut and cover" method
c.2060 BC Sumeria has revival under the third dynasty of UR which falls to the Babylonians c.1950BC
2080 BC "Middle" Kingdom (2080-1640) begins in Egypt
c.2050 BC Gilgamesh Epic of 3000 lines on 12 tablets, set down, telling of the Babylonian King of Uruk.
c.2050 BC Bronze Age begins
c.2045 BC Stonehenge second phase of construction using stone
c.1991 BC 12th Dynasty in Egypt - Capitol Thebes - Expansion of the Empire
c.1950 BC Third Dynasty of UR falls to the Babylonians and the Sumerian era ends.
c.1920 BC Cannantites and beginning of religious monotheistic (one God) beliefs - Time of Abraham, founder of Judaism.
c.1900 BC Postulated time for the biblical destruction of Sodom & Gomorrah, the wicked "cities of the plain" in the Dead Sea region, also of Admah, Zeboiim and Zoar, of which Zoar was spared.
1831 BC First Historical reference to an Earthquake - Mount Tye in China
c.1800 BC Smelted (bloom) Iron comes into use - Bronze Age fades into the Iron Age
1792 BC Hammurabi founds and rules, until 1750 BC, over the original Empire of Babylonia (Mesopotamia), which was eventually destroyed by raiders from Asia Minor.
1780 BC Massive volcanic eruption of Vesuvius
c.1760 BC Alphabetic writing emerges as simpler way of recording information than Egyptian hieroglyphics
c.1750 BC First Babylonian Dynasty arises after Hammurabi cedes power in Mespotamia
c.1650 BC Hittite culture develops in the Lower Euphrates River Region
1640 BC "Middle" Kingdom (2080-1640) ends in Egypt
1622 BC 16th Dynasty begins in Egypt - Capitol Thebes - Re-conquest of power throughout Egypt
c.1600 BC Minoan culture on Crete at its zenith
1580 BC 18th Dynasty in Egypt - Capitols Thebes & Akhetaten - Triumph of Egyptian Empire over known world
c.1570 BC "New" Kingdom (1570-1075) in Egypt begins
c.1560 BC Island of Thera, (Atlantis?) now Santorini, destroyed by a massive volcanic eruption, whose effects were likely the cause of the biblical plagues associated with the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt. The resulting wave surge (tsunami) from this eruption was also responsible for the demise of the Manoan Civilization on the nearby island of Crete.
c.1560 BC Recently postulated date for the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt by Moses during the reign of Pharaoh Ahmose. The original date had been thought to have been during the reign of Ramses-II in c.1270 BC.
c.1525 BC 18th Dynasty in Egypt - Temple at Karnak, Egypt enriched to maximum glory
c.1500 BC Mayan civilization arises in Central America
c.1500 BC Irrigation from the Nile River in use in Egypt
c.1500 BC First bronze swords in use - Sundial in use in Egypt - Chinese invent the crossbow
1486-1468 Hatshepsut (1505-1486) regent for her son, reigns in Egypt wearing male attire and the pharaoh's false beard
1469 BC Battle of Megiddo, Esdraelon, Palestine where Egyptians destroyed a rebel army and captured Megiddo after a siege of 3 weeks.
c. 1450 BC Term "Pharoh" for Egyptian rulers comes into use. It is a hebrew term for "great house"
c.1450 BC Stonehenge third phase completed to present layout and form
c.1400 BC Knosses on Crete finally destroyed and the Minoan civilization fades into obscurity
1354-1345 Tutankhamen, the "Boy-King" on the throne of Egypt
c.1350 BC Forged (tempered) Iron comes into use by the Hittites - "Iron Age" continues into modern times
c.1350 BC Biblical Walls of Jericho fall (due to earthquake?)
c.1350 BC First known outbreak of Smallpox when Hittite warriors catch disease from Egyptian prisoners
1314 BC 19th Dynasty in Egypt - Capitols Tanis & Thebes - Military power in recurrent wars
c.1300 BC Conquest of Jericho from the Canaanites by Joshua (dated between 1400BC to 1250BC)
1294 BC Battle of Kadesh (Qadesh, on Orontes River, Syria), between Rameses II of Egypt and Hittite King Muwatalis. Ramses was unable to capture Kadesh and eventually made peace.
1292 BC Ramses II begins reign of 67 years in Egypt till his death in 1225 - Egypt reaches its zeneth during his reign
c.1280 BC Troy sacked by the Greeks after 10-year Trojan War
1274 BC Ramses' Battle of Kadesh
c.1270 BC Original postulated date for the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt by Moses, during the reign of Ramses-II. More recent research may move the Exodus date back to c. 1520 BC
c.1260 BC Traditional beginning of the "Classical" Period, ending in 476 AD with the abdication of Romulus?
1259 BC Non-aggression peace treaty (1st in history?) established between Egypt and Hettites after long conflict.
1200 BC 20th Dynasty in Egypt - Capitol Thebes - Recovery and Decadence of Central Power
c.1185 BC Beginning of the Ionian immigration in the Aegean Sea region
1184 BC Ramses III comes to power in Egypt
c.1180 BC First Babylonian Dynasty falls into anarchy.
c.1100 BC The YoYo comes into use in Greece as the 2nd oldest known toy - Only the doll is older.
1085 BC 21st Dynasty in Egypt - Capitols Tanis & Thebes - Power splits with Lower Egypt ruled from Tanis and Upper Egypt ruled from Thebes
c.1075 BC "New" Kingdom (1570-1075) in Egypt ends
c.1075 BC Stonehenge fourth and final phase completed
c.1012-922 Kings: Saul, David and Solomon reign over United 12 Hebrew Tribes (Kingdoms)
c.1010 BC Saul and Israelites defeat Philistines at Mount Gilboa
c.1000 BC A cult of "Zeus" formed at Olympia in the valley of the River Alpheus, where locals sacrificed animals to the God Zeus and hosted festivals.
c.1000 BC Stone Yo-Yo's appear in Greece
970-931 Reign of King Solomon who rules over the 12 Tribes of Israel
966 BC King Solomon begins construction of First Temple on Mount Mariah in Jerusalem
958 BC Temple (first) on Mount Mariah in Jerusalem completed by King Solomon
c. 930 BC Death of King Solomon - Division of the 12 Hebrew Tribes, Israel (10) 922-721 Judah (2) 922-586
814 BC Traditional time for the founding of Carthage on the North Coast of Africa (modern day Tunisia), by Dido and Phonicians from City of Tyre
c.800-750 Iron Age settlement on Palatine Hill, along the Tiber River, the site of future Rome, cremation of the dead becomes common.
c. 776 BC Olympic Games instituted in Greece with the Stadion, a 192 meter (600 ft) footrace. The Games were a 5-day athletic festival to honor Zeus, King of the Gods
EARLY ROMAN (Etruscan) PERIOD 753 BC to 510 BC
753 BC Traditional year for the founding of Rome by Romulus
753-715 ROMULUS - King of Rome
745-612 Assyrian Empire - Time of Jewish prophet Isaiah
c.727 BC Hezekiah becomes King of Judah
724 BC The Diaulos (384 meter foot race) added to Olympic Games
722 BC Israelite capitol of Samaria falls to Sargon, King of Assyria, resulting in the dispersion of the "Ten Tribes of Israel" into Assyria and Persia-Media, where their history is said to have ended
720 BC The Dolichos (long distance run) added to Olympic Games
718 BC The Eternal Flame of Rome is ignited, tended by the Vestal Virgins. It was the longest lasting fire, continuing to burn for 1112 years until it was allowed to die-out in 394 AD
715-673 NUMA POMPILIUS - King of Rome
708 BC The Pentathion (wrestling, stadion, long-jump, discus, javelin) becomes a part the Olympic Games
705 BC Death of Sargon II, King of Assyria
704 BC Sennacherib (Senake-riba) comes to power over Syria / Babylon
701 BC First invasion of Judah by Sennacherib (Senake-riba), which routed rebellious Jews and exacted a heavy toll upon them.
c. 700 BC Early Rome at odds with its neighbors, the "Sabines"; with later compromises
c. 730-790 Roman and Sabine Kings alternately rule over Roman territories
690 BC Second invasion of Judah by Sennacherib thwarted by a plague in the 185,000 man Assyrian Army.
689 BC City of Babylon (Mesopotamia on Euphrates River) destroyed by the Assyrians under Sennacherib.
688 BC Boxing added to the Olympic Games during the XXIII Olympiad
c. 688 BC Sennacherib (Senake-riba) ends 2nd siege of Jeruselem after sudden deaths of 185,000 soldiers within his Assyrian Army due to disease plaque (smallpox, black death, anthrax?)
681 BC Sennacherib (Senake-riba) , King of Assyria, assassinated by two of his sons. Esarhaddon comes to power
680 BC Four horse Chariot Race becomes a part of the Olympic Games
c. 680 BC Estruscan Tarquins take control of Rome
673-642 TULLUS HOSTILIUS - King of Rome
c. 670 BC First major bridge "Pons Sublicius" (wood piles) built across the Tiber River to the Temple to Jupiter
669 BC Esarhaddon, King of Assyria-Mesopotamia, dies - Ashurbonipal comes to power
c. 667 BC Byzantium City (future Constantinople) founded by Megara Greeks
c. 666 BC Ashurbonipal establishes world's first library
c. 665 BC Traditional date for founding of Cyrene by Greeks from Thera
c. 650-550 Celtic tribes from central Europe encrouch on northern Italy
648 BC The Pankration (boxing, wrestling, general free-for-all) and a Horse Race become a part of the Olympic Games
642-617 ANCUS MARTIUS - King of Rome
627 BC Ashurbonipal, King of Assyria-Mesopotamia dies - Nabopolassar vies for thrown of Babylonia.
626 BC Nabopolasser of Babylonia begins campaign to conquer Assyria.
c. 616-510 Rome dominated by the Etruscan culture in northern Italy
616-579 Lucius TARQUINIUS PRISCUS (Tarquin I) - First Etruscan King of Rome, takes peacful control of Rome
612 BC City of Ninevah captured by Nabopolassar allied with the Medes and Persians bringing the downfall of Assyrian Empire. New Babylonian (Chaldaean) Empire established.
605 BC Nebuchadnezzar-II defeats Pharoh Necho at Carchemish to become ruler of Western Asia (Babylonia)
605 BC Nabopolassar of Babylonia dies, succeeded by Nebuchadnezzar-II
c. 605-562 Nebuchadnezzar, reigns as King of Babylonia; builds "Hanging Gardens"
c. 600 BC Public Square "The Forum Romanum" is created in Rome
c. 600 BC Tradition of Cremation becomes a part of Roman Culture
c. 600 BC Monetary coins introduced into Greek economic life on the Island of Aegina
c. 597-586 Nebuchadnezzar crushes Judian revolt and places Zedekiah, as puppit king, who reigns as the Last King of Judah for nine years until 586 BC.
586 BC Destruction of Jerusalem and Temple of Solomon by Nebuzarradan, under orders of King Nebuchadnezzar - The Babylonian Captivity and Exile of Judah begins
580 BC Birth of Cyrus the Great of Persia
c. 578-535 Servius TARQUINIUS TULLIUS - Latin King of Rome, son in law of Tarquinius Priscus
c. 575 BC City of Babylon becomes largest city in the ancient world of that time
574BC Babylon conquers City of Tyre
c. 570 BC Tower of Babal constructed in City of Babylon
562 BC Nebuchadnezzar age 84, King of Babylonia, dies.
559 BC Cyres the Great comes to power in Persia
550 BC Cyrus the Great founds Persian Empire - Temple of Artemis (called Temple of Diana by the Romans) built in Ephesus (Kucuk Menderes), W. Turkey.
550 BC Gold coins come into use in Sardis, Western Turkey
549 BC Belshazzar comes to power in Babylonia
546 BC Cyrus captures Croeses and Lydia becomes a satrapy under Persian government.
538 BC Cyrus the Great of Persia, conquers Babylonia, deposing King Belshazzar who saw "the writing on the wall" -" Mene Mene Tekel Upharson" - "Weighed in the balance and found wanting".
537 BC Cyrus King of Persia issues the famous edict ending the Babylonian Captivity of Judah, who return to Jerusalem to build 2nd (Zerubbabel's) Temple - Cuniform writing declines in use.
535 BC Construction on Isle of Samos of oldest known tunnel still in use, originally for water, now used by pedestrians between Greece and Turkey
535-510 Lucius TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, "The Proud" (Tarquin II) - Last Etruscan King of Rome
529 BC Death of Cyrus the Great of Persia
525 BC Persian conquest of Egypt - Cambyses becomes Pharaoh
525 BC Foot race, in armor, added to Olympic Games
522 BC Darius-I, "The Great" rules over Persia till 484BC
521 BC First written reference to Iron in China
515 BC Second (Zerubbabel's) Temple on Mount Moriah completed at Jerusalem, of which only the sacred "Western Wall" remains today
510 BC Tarquinius Superbus and other "Tarquins" expelled from Rome
END OF THE EARLY AND ETRUSCAN PERIOD OF ANCIENT ROME
SOURCES: Penquin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome - Viking Press - 1995
Time line of NovaRoma - Ancient Rome Reborn website
Rand McNally HistoMap of World History
"Information Please" on-line encyclopedia
The Battle Book - Bryan Perrett - 1992
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