A Compilation assembled to more easily comprehend the  History of Ancient Rome  and its relationship to other Events in  Ancient World History 

Last  Updated  on  December  18,  2012


c. 2 million BC  Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age begins with earliest human development 

c.640,000 BC    Super volcanic eruption creates Yellowstone Park region 

c.73,000 BC  Effects from the super volcanic eruption of Toba in Sumatra, after a 700,000 year slumber, the greatest eruption in the last 2 million years, reduces world-wide human population to as few as 7,000 individuals

c.50,000 BC  Bow and Arrow in use in Africa 

c.33,000 BC  Supervolcanic eruption creates the caldera in which the Bay and City of Naples now resides.  Vesuvius is a remnant of that eruption  

c.25,000 BC  African hunters using flint arrowheads and shafts fletched with feathers

>10,000 BC  Mesolithic (Middle Stone) Age succeeds Paleolithic Age   

c.8000 BC    City of Jericho founded, the oldest inhabited settlement on earth.

c.7000 BC   Neolithic (New Stone) Age begins in S/W Asia.

c.6000 BC   First evidence of writing - European hunters using strong yew bows

c.5600 BC   Postulated time of the Biblical Noah's Flood in the Black Sea region

c.5508 BC   Byzantine equivalent date for the Creation of the World

c.5500 BC   Evidence of prehistoric culture in Sumeria region of southern Mesopotamia 

   4977 BC   Birth of the Universe according to Johannes Kepler 

c.3761 BC   Jewish equivalent date for the Creation of the World 

c.3550 BC   Megiddo (Armageddon- N. Israel) established,   prophesized in "Revelations"to be the site of the ultimate battle between the forces of Good and Evil on the Final Day of God

c.3500 BC   First pyramids, made of earth, constructed in Peru. 

c.3400 BC    The Bronze (copper + tin) Age begins following the end of the Neolithic (new stone) Age (from 10,000BC)

c.3300 BC    Sumerians have the first kings, develop cuneiform writing, the wheel, the plow, the 60 second minute  -   Sumerian city-states emerge

c.3200 BC    Menes (Narmer) King of Upper Egypt conquers Lower Egypt forming single (Old) Kingdom  -  Development of hieroglyphics in Egypt.  Embalming of the dead developed in Egypt.

c.3100 BC    First Dynasty of Egypt  -   Mesopotamia inhabited  -  Grapes first crushed and fermented to produce win

   3114 BC Aug-13  Mythical beginning of the Maya Civilization and their so-called "Long-Count" calendar period of 5125 years, postulated to end on Dec-21, 2012 

c.3000 BC    Ur and Uruk, the first recognized city-states on Earth, are established in the Sumer region of Southern Mesopotamia (Iraq) in the south end of the Fertile Crescent, where records for the first Kings, the wheel and the plow are found. 

c.3000 BC    Potatos first cultivated in S.America  -   Corn grown as a crop in Mexico  -  Cotton grown in the Indus Valley   -  Ox-Plow used in Europe

c.2950 BC    Jericho developed in Palestine  - The oldest known inhabited city on Earth

c.2800 BC    Ancient Minoan Culture on Island of Crete in Aegean Sea

c.2800 BC    First phase of Stonehenge construction of wood 

c.2750 BC    Imhotep, the first great physician and architect in history, constructs the first (stepped) stone pyramid at Saqqara, Egypt under ruler Zoser; the first great monumental building built by man. 

c.2700 BC    Sumerian culture develops  in Mesopotamia   -  Temples and Palaces built of brick

c.2700 BC    Spoked wheels come into use

c.2550 BC    Khufu (Cheops-4th Dynasty) completes first Great Pyramid at  Giza, Egypt; which reigns as the tallest structure on Earth until completion of the Eiffel Tower in 1889

c.2500 BC    The horse is domesticated in China

c.2500 BC    Egyptian warriors in chariots using composite bows of horn and wood, and half-once arrows with hollow reed shafts with a range of 400 yards

c.2340 BC    Akkadian Dynasty, the worlds first empire, established by Sargon of Sumeria;  which falls in 2180BC.

   2279 BC    Sargon the Great of Sumeria dies 

c.2200 BC    Development of  Troy II, III, IV

   2197 BC    Fall of Akkad in Sumeria to invading barbarians from Persia and northeast

c.2180 BC    Babylonians build first underwater tunnel under the Euphrates River using bricks and "cut and cover" method

c.2060 BC    Sumeria has revival under the third dynasty of UR which falls to the Babylonians  c.1950BC

   2080 BC    "Middle" Kingdom (2080-1640) begins in Egypt

c.2050 BC    Gilgamesh Epic of 3000 lines on 12 tablets, set down, telling of the Babylonian King of Uruk.

c.2050 BC    Bronze Age begins 

c.2045 BC    Stonehenge second phase of construction using stone

c.1991 BC    12th Dynasty in Egypt - Capitol Thebes - Expansion of the Empire

c.1950 BC    Third Dynasty of UR falls to the Babylonians and the Sumerian era ends. 

c.1920 BC    Cannantites and beginning of religious monotheistic (one God) beliefs  - Time of Abraham, founder of Judaism.     

c.1900 BC    Postulated time for the biblical destruction of Sodom & Gomorrah, the wicked "cities of the plain" in the Dead Sea region, also of Admah, Zeboiim and Zoar, of which Zoar was spared.

   1831 BC    First Historical reference to an Earthquake  -  Mount Tye in China

c.1800 BC    Smelted (bloom) Iron comes into use  -   Bronze Age fades into the Iron Age

   1792 BC    Hammurabi founds and rules, until 1750 BC, over the original Empire of Babylonia (Mesopotamia), which was eventually destroyed by raiders from Asia Minor.

   1780 BC    Massive volcanic eruption of Vesuvius 

c.1760 BC    Alphabetic writing emerges as simpler way of recording  information than Egyptian hieroglyphics 

c.1750 BC    First Babylonian Dynasty arises after Hammurabi cedes power in Mespotamia

c.1650 BC    Hittite culture develops in the Lower Euphrates River Region

   1640 BC    "Middle" Kingdom (2080-1640) ends in Egypt

   1622 BC    16th Dynasty begins in Egypt - Capitol Thebes - Re-conquest of power throughout Egypt

c.1600 BC    Minoan culture on Crete at its zenith

   1580 BC    18th Dynasty in Egypt - Capitols Thebes & Akhetaten - Triumph of Egyptian Empire over known world

c.1570 BC    "New" Kingdom (1570-1075) in Egypt begins

c.1560 BC    Island of  Thera, (Atlantis?) now Santorini, destroyed by a massive volcanic eruption, whose effects were likely the cause of the biblical plagues associated with the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt.  The resulting wave surge (tsunami) from this eruption was also responsible for the demise of the Manoan Civilization on the nearby island of Crete. 

c.1560 BC    Recently postulated date for the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt by Moses during the reign of Pharaoh Ahmose.  The original date had been thought to have been during the reign of Ramses-II in c.1270 BC.

c.1525 BC    18th Dynasty in Egypt  -  Temple at Karnak, Egypt  enriched to maximum glory  

c.1500 BC    Mayan civilization arises in Central America

c.1500 BC    Irrigation from the Nile River in use in Egypt

c.1500 BC    First bronze swords in use - Sundial in use in Egypt - Chinese invent the crossbow

1486-1468   Hatshepsut (1505-1486) regent for her son, reigns in Egypt wearing male attire and the pharaoh's false beard 

    1469 BC  Battle of Megiddo, Esdraelon, Palestine where Egyptians destroyed a rebel army and captured Megiddo after a siege of 3 weeks.

c. 1450 BC   Term "Pharoh" for Egyptian rulers comes into use.  It is a hebrew term for "great house"

c.1450 BC   Stonehenge third phase completed to present layout and form

c.1400 BC    Knosses on Crete finally destroyed and the Minoan civilization fades into obscurity

1354-1345    Tutankhamen, the "Boy-King" on the throne of  Egypt

c.1350 BC    Forged (tempered) Iron comes into use by the Hittites  -  "Iron Age" continues into modern times

c.1350 BC    Biblical Walls of Jericho fall (due to earthquake?)

c.1350 BC    First known outbreak of Smallpox when Hittite warriors catch disease from Egyptian prisoners 

   1314 BC   19th Dynasty in Egypt - Capitols Tanis & Thebes - Military power in recurrent wars 

c.1300 BC    Conquest of Jericho from the Canaanites by Joshua  (dated between 1400BC to 1250BC

   1294 BC   Battle of Kadesh (Qadesh, on Orontes River, Syria), between Rameses II of Egypt and Hittite King Muwatalis.  Ramses was unable to capture Kadesh and eventually made peace.  

   1292 BC    Ramses II begins reign of 67 years in Egypt till his death in 1225 - Egypt reaches its zeneth during his reign

c.1280 BC    Troy sacked by the Greeks after 10-year Trojan War

   1274 BC    Ramses' Battle of Kadesh

c.1270 BC    Original postulated date for the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt by Moses, during the reign of Ramses-II.  More recent research may move the Exodus date back to c. 1520 BC

c.1260 BC   Traditional beginning of the "Classical" Period, ending in 476 AD with the abdication of Romulus?  

   1259 BC   Non-aggression peace treaty (1st in history?) established between Egypt and Hettites after long conflict.  

   1200 BC   20th Dynasty in Egypt - Capitol Thebes - Recovery and Decadence of Central Power

c.1185 BC   Beginning of the Ionian immigration in the Aegean Sea region

   1184 BC   Ramses III comes to power in Egypt  

c.1180 BC   First Babylonian Dynasty  falls into anarchy. 

c.1100 BC   The YoYo comes into use in Greece as the 2nd oldest known toy - Only the doll is older.   

   1085 BC   21st Dynasty in Egypt - Capitols Tanis & Thebes - Power splits with Lower Egypt ruled from Tanis and Upper Egypt ruled from Thebes

c.1075 BC    "New" Kingdom (1570-1075) in Egypt ends 

c.1075 BC    Stonehenge fourth and final phase completed 

c.1012-922   Kings:  Saul, David and Solomon  reign over United 12 Hebrew Tribes (Kingdoms)

c.1010 BC   Saul and Israelites defeat Philistines at Mount Gilboa  

c.1000 BC   A cult of "Zeus" formed at Olympia in the valley of the River Alpheus, where locals sacrificed animals to the God Zeus and hosted festivals.

c.1000 BC    Stone Yo-Yo's appear in Greece

     970-931   Reign of King Solomon who rules over the 12 Tribes of Israel

    966 BC    King Solomon begins construction of First Temple on Mount Mariah  in Jerusalem 

    958 BC    Temple (first) on Mount Mariah  in Jerusalem  completed by King Solomon

c. 930 BC    Death of King Solomon - Division of the 12 Hebrew Tribes,  Israel (10) 922-721  Judah (2) 922-586 

   814 BC    Traditional time for the founding of Carthage on the North Coast of Africa (modern day Tunisia), by Dido and Phonicians from City of Tyre

c.800-750    Iron Age settlement on Palatine Hill, along the Tiber River, the site of future Rome, cremation of the dead becomes common.

c. 776 BC    Olympic Games instituted in Greece with the Stadion, a 192 meter (600 ft) footrace.  The Games were a 5-day athletic festival to honor Zeus, King of the Gods  


EARLY  ROMAN  (Etruscan) PERIOD     753 BC   to  510 BC

   753 BC    Traditional year for the founding of Rome by Romulus

   753-715    ROMULUS - King of Rome

   745-612    Assyrian Empire  -  Time of Jewish prophet Isaiah

c.727 BC    Hezekiah becomes King of Judah

   724 BC    The Diaulos (384 meter foot race) added to Olympic Games

   722 BC    Israelite capitol of Samaria falls to Sargon, King of Assyria, resulting in the dispersion of the "Ten Tribes of Israel" into Assyria and Persia-Media, where their history is said to have ended

   720 BC    The Dolichos (long distance run) added to Olympic Games 

   718 BC     The Eternal Flame of Rome is ignited, tended by the Vestal Virgins.  It was the longest lasting fire, continuing to burn for 1112 years until it was allowed to die-out in 394 AD

   715-673    NUMA  POMPILIUS - King of Rome

    708 BC    The Pentathion (wrestling, stadion, long-jump, discus, javelin) becomes a part the  Olympic Games

    705 BC    Death of Sargon II, King of Assyria 

    704 BC   Sennacherib (Senake-riba) comes to power over Syria / Babylon

    701 BC    First invasion of Judah by Sennacherib (Senake-riba),  which routed rebellious Jews and exacted a heavy toll upon them.

c. 700 BC    Early Rome at odds with its neighbors,  the "Sabines";  with later compromises

c. 730-790   Roman and Sabine Kings alternately rule over Roman territories

    690 BC   Second invasion of Judah by Sennacherib thwarted by a plague in the 185,000 man Assyrian Army.

    689 BC   City of Babylon (Mesopotamia on Euphrates River) destroyed by the Assyrians under Sennacherib.

    688 BC   Boxing added to the Olympic Games during the XXIII Olympiad 

c. 688 BC   Sennacherib (Senake-riba) ends 2nd siege of Jeruselem after sudden deaths of 185,000 soldiers within his Assyrian Army due to disease plaque (smallpox, black death, anthrax?)  

    681 BC   Sennacherib (Senake-riba) , King of Assyria, assassinated by two of his sons.  Esarhaddon comes to power 

    680 BC   Four horse Chariot Race becomes a part of the Olympic Games

c. 680 BC   Estruscan Tarquins take control of Rome 

   673-642   TULLUS  HOSTILIUS - King of Rome

c. 670 BC   First major bridge "Pons Sublicius" (wood piles) built across the Tiber River to the Temple to Jupiter 

   669 BC    Esarhaddon, King of Assyria-Mesopotamia, dies - Ashurbonipal comes to power  

c. 667 BC   Byzantium City (future Constantinople) founded by Megara Greeks 

c. 666 BC   Ashurbonipal establishes world's first library

c. 665 BC   Traditional date for founding of Cyrene by Greeks from Thera

c. 650-550   Celtic tribes from central Europe encrouch on northern Italy

   648 BC    The Pankration (boxing, wrestling, general free-for-all) and a Horse Race become a part of the Olympic Games

    642-617   ANCUS  MARTIUS - King of Rome

    627 BC    Ashurbonipal, King of Assyria-Mesopotamia dies - Nabopolassar vies for thrown of Babylonia.

    626 BC   Nabopolasser of Babylonia begins campaign to conquer Assyria. 

c. 616-510   Rome dominated by the Etruscan culture in northern Italy   

    616-579   Lucius  TARQUINIUS  PRISCUS (Tarquin I) - First Etruscan King of Rome,  takes peacful control of Rome

    612 BC    City of Ninevah captured by Nabopolassar allied with the  Medes and Persians bringing the downfall of Assyrian Empire.  New Babylonian (Chaldaean) Empire established.

    605 BC    Nebuchadnezzar-II defeats Pharoh Necho at Carchemish to become ruler of Western Asia (Babylonia)

    605 BC    Nabopolassar of Babylonia dies, succeeded by Nebuchadnezzar-II 

c. 605-562   Nebuchadnezzar,  reigns as King of Babylonia;  builds "Hanging Gardens"

c. 600 BC    Public Square "The Forum Romanum"  is created in Rome

c. 600 BC    Tradition of Cremation becomes a part of Roman Culture 

c. 600 BC     Monetary coins introduced into Greek economic life on the Island of Aegina

c. 597-586   Nebuchadnezzar crushes Judian revolt and places Zedekiah, as puppit king, who reigns as the Last King of Judah for nine years until 586 BC.

    586 BC    Destruction of Jerusalem and Temple of Solomon by  Nebuzarradan,  under orders of King Nebuchadnezzar  -  The Babylonian Captivity and Exile of Judah begins

    580 BC    Birth of Cyrus the Great of Persia

c. 578-535   Servius TARQUINIUS  TULLIUS - Latin King of Rome,  son in law of  Tarquinius Priscus

c. 575 BC    City of Babylon becomes largest city in the ancient world of that time 

    574BC     Babylon conquers City of Tyre

c. 570 BC    Tower of Babal constructed in City of Babylon 

    562 BC    Nebuchadnezzar age 84, King of Babylonia, dies. 

    559 BC   Cyres the Great comes to power in Persia 

    550 BC    Cyrus the Great founds Persian Empire - Temple of Artemis (called Temple of Diana by the Romans) built in Ephesus (Kucuk Menderes), W. Turkey. 

    550 BC    Gold coins come into use in Sardis, Western Turkey

    549 BC    Belshazzar comes to power in Babylonia 

    546 BC    Cyrus captures Croeses and Lydia becomes a satrapy under Persian government.

    538 BC    Cyrus the Great of Persia,  conquers Babylonia, deposing King Belshazzar who saw "the writing on the wall" -" Mene Mene Tekel Upharson" - "Weighed in the balance and found wanting"

    537 BC    Cyrus King of Persia issues the famous edict ending the Babylonian Captivity of  Judah, who return to Jerusalem to build 2nd (Zerubbabel's) Temple  -  Cuniform writing declines in use.   

    535 BC    Construction on Isle of Samos of oldest known tunnel still in use, originally for water, now used by pedestrians between Greece and Turkey

    535-510   Lucius TARQUINIUS  SUPERBUS, "The Proud" (Tarquin II) - Last Etruscan King of Rome

    529 BC    Death of Cyrus the Great of Persia

    525 BC    Persian conquest of Egypt - Cambyses becomes Pharaoh

    525 BC    Foot race, in armor, added to Olympic Games 

    522 BC    Darius-I, "The Great"  rules over Persia till 484BC

    521 BC    First written reference to Iron in China

    515 BC   Second (Zerubbabel's) Temple on Mount Moriah completed at Jerusalem, of which only the sacred "Western Wall" remains today

    510 BC   Tarquinius Superbus and other "Tarquins" expelled from Rome



SOURCES:  Penquin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome - Viking Press - 1995

                      Time line of  NovaRoma - Ancient Rome Reborn  website

                      Rand McNally  HistoMap of World History 

                    "Information Please" on-line encyclopedia

                      The Battle Book - Bryan Perrett - 1992

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