LAST  UPDATED   June 22,  2013    

A Compilation assembled to more easily comprehend the   History of Ancient Rome  and its relationship to other Events in  Ancient World History

 fascesright300.jpg (12512 bytes)      signumnewtop.jpg (23447 bytes)      fascesleft300.jpg (12517 bytes)     

The Fasces and Maniple Signum Standard  -   Two icons of the Roman Republic.    


ROMAN  REPUBLICAN  PERIOD     510 BC  to   27 BC  

Major Leaders of the Republic are listed with major name in FULL CAPITOL Letters

    510 BC    June 14  Roman Republic established controlled by two annually elected "Consuls"

    509 BC    Lucius Junius BRUTUS  -  Consul

    509 BC    Traditional date for first navigation treaty between Rome and Carthage

    508 BC    Horatius Cocles repells Etruscans at Sublicius Bridge in Rome  -  First Treaty between Rome and Carthage

    507 BC    Death of Pythagoras, Greek philosopher and mathematician (c. 582– c. 507 B.C.E.)

    506 BC    Victory at Aricia over Lars Porsenna,   finally ends Etruscan control in Roman territory

    500 BC    Mule Cart Race added to Olympic Games

c. 500 BC    Spinning Wheel comes into use in India for spinning thread

    496 BC    Roman forces defeat Latins at Lake Regillus

    493 BC    Latin League established by treaty

    490 BC    Battle of Marathon, where Greeks defeat the Persians in battles at  Bay of Marathon, 26 miles northeast of Athens.  News of the victory was carried by famed runner Pheidippedes, who ran the 26 miles to Athens.  This event is now commemorated in the modern 26 mile long "Marathon" Race.   

    486 BC    Death of Darius of Persia, son Xerxes-I rules Persia until 465 BC

    484 BC    Temple of Castor and Pollux dedicated at Forum Romanum in Rome

c. 483 BC    Death of Buddha (c.563 - c.483 BC.)

    480 BC  Battle of Thermopylae (Lamia, Greece), Graeco-Persian War (499-448),     Persian forces of 100,000 defeat a heroic stand of 300 Spartans at Thermopylae Pass

    480 BC    Persian fleet destroyed by Greece and Sparta at Salamis

    479 BC    120,000 Persians finally defeated on the Plain of  Plataea (Thebes) by Greek and Spartan forces of 80,000 during Graeco-Persian War (499-448)

    479 BC    Death of Confucius (551- 479 BC) 

    464 BC    Death of Persian King Xerxes-I, his son Artaxerxes-I rules Persia until 424 BC

    460 BC    Hippocrates,  Greek “Father of Medicine”  born

    458 BC    Lucius Quinctius CINCINNATUS  -   Dictator  -  Later abdicates and returns to farming

    455 BC    June 2  Gaiseric and the Vandals sack Rome 

   451-450    "Decemvirate"  a council of ten magistrates rules Rome 

    450 BC   The "Twelve Tables" (of bronze) created in Rome,  defining the civil rights of the people and codes of law;   that became the basis of modern western criminal law and civil rights.  They were probably destroyed in an invasion in 387 BC.

   450-400    Flowering of Greek culture during the Age of Pericles

c. 444 BC    Great statue of Athena by Phidias (c.500-c.432 BC )in the Parthenon dedicated on the Acropolis in Athens Greece.

c.435 BC    Great Temple of Zeus on Olympia erected

   431-404    Peloponnesian Wars between Athens and Sparta   - Sparta victorious 

    430 BC    A great plague, (bubonic?) the first to strike Europe?, kills 1/3 of population, ravages the Athean Greek Empire and leads to its demise and eventual defeat by the Spartans,  

    429 BC    Death of Pericles (443-429), possibly due to plague of 430.  Pericles brought the Athean Greek Empire to its zenith.

    424 BC    Artaxerxes (grandson of Darius) dies

    421 BC    Greek historian Plato recounts Legend of Atlantis 

    420 BC    Spartans are banned from the Olympic Games at Elis, as Sparta was at War with Athens, with which Elis had concluded a treaty. 

   415-413    Siege of Syracuse (east coast of Sicely), Peloponnesian War (431-404), Athenians (22,000) attempt to capture Syracuse from the Spartans (22,000) and are defeated, marking the beginning of the decline of Athens and the rise of Sparta.    

    408 BC    Two Horse Chariot Race becomes a part of the Olympic Games

    405 BC    Seige of Viee, north of Rome, begins

    404 BC    Peloponnesian Wars end, with victory for Sparta over Athens, after 27 years

    401 BC    Battle of Cunaxa, First Persian Civil War, near Babylon, in which Cyrus of Persia was killed in an attempt (with a Spartan and Greek contingent) to seize the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II.

c. 400 BC     First historical evidence for use of catapults in war (Syracuse, Sicily - Greece vs Carthage)   Catapult   Ballista Page

c. 400 BC     Greek City of Sparta at his height of power has 25,000 citizens and 500,000 slaves (do the per person math)

c. 400 BC     Blast furnace permitting iron to be smelted to a liquid (2600oF 1500oC) comes into use in China. 

    399 BC    Trial and execution of  Greek philosopher  Socrates

    396 BC    Rome captures and destroys Viee,  north of Rome,  after a 10 year siege,  in its first major military campaign

    396 BC    Competition for Trumpeters and Heralds (town criers) added to the Olympic Games

    391 BC    Celtic raids into Roman territory

    390 BC    Celtic Gauls, under Quinctilus,  sack the City of Rome 

    388 BC  June-1  Dedication of Temple to Mars and associated rites 

    378 BC    Servian Wall,  6 miles long,   completed around City of Rome;  in response to Celtic attack in 390 

    371 BC July - Battle of Leuctra, War of the Greek City States, Thebes, Greece.  A Thebian force of 6,000 destroys the military prestige of Sparta (force of 11,000)  

    356 BC    Temple of Artemus destroyed by arson fire 

    356 BC June - Birth of Alexander the Great by some reckonings 

    352 BC    Great Mausoleum  at Halicarnassus, Asia Minor, erected in memory of Mausolus of Caria.

    348 BC    Second Navigation Treaty between Rome and Carthage

c.347 BC    Death of  Plato (c.427 - 347 BC) 

   344 BC    June-1  Dedication of Temple to Juno Moneta

   343-341    First Samnite War with tribes in south central Italy  -  Short and Inconclusive

   340-338    Latin War in which Rome gains control of Latium,  the region around the City of Rome   

   338 BC  2, Aug - Battle of Chaeronea (n/w of Athens Greece) which gave Macedonia control of Central Greece after 4th Sacred War (339-338)

   335-330    Alexander the Great destroys Thebes (335), takes Ephesus (334), conquers Tyre & Jerusalem (332), occupies Babylon (330) 

   334 BC  May - Alexander's forces of 18,100 defeats Persian forces of 15,000 at River Granicus (n/w Asia-Minor) 

   333 BC  Oct. - Battle of Issus (s/e Turkey) Alexander defeats forces of Darius III and continues to Egypt and then into Persia.  

   333-332    Alexander the Great invades and conquers the Persian Empire and Egypt and founds City of Alexandria in Egypt 

   332 BC     Alexander conquers City of Tyre 

c.329 BC     Circus Maximus in Rome completed

    331 BC  1, Oct - Battle of Arbela on Plain of Guagamela, northern Iraq - Persian Army of Darius (250,000) destroyed by Alexander the Great with 47,000.  Alexander takes control of Persian Empire.  

    330 BC   Alexander conquers Persian Capitol City of Persepolis, city destroyed by fire 

   327-304    Second Samnite War begins

    326 BC June - Alexander the Great's calvary of archers wins the Battle of the Hydaspes River `(Jalapur, Pakistan), as far east as Alexander would conquer, after his troops refused to go further.  

    323 BC   June 13  Death of  Alexander the Great (356-323 BC)  in Babylon  -  Euclid's work on geometry  

    322 BC    Death of Aristotle, sometimes called "Stagirite",  Greek philosopher (384-322 BC)

    321 BC    Roman army defeated by the Samnites at Caudine Forks (north of Naples)

c.320 BC    Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle

    312 BC    Aqua Appia, first aquaduct to Rome,  from 10 miles east,  begun  -  and the Via Appia also called "Statius (Queen of Roads)" begun;  both under supervision of Censor Appius Claudius Caecus (the Blind)

    306 BC    Third Treaty between Rome and Carthage

    304 BC    Second Samnite War ends with some territorial gains for Rome 

c. 300 BC   Alexandria becomes first city in history with a population of one million 

  298-290    Third Samnite War expands Roman control across the Apennines to the Adriatic Sea 

c. 296 BC    Dedication of Temple of Bellona and associated rites 

    292 BC    Great Lighthouse (Pharos) of Alexandria, Egypt - construction begins.  

    290 BC    The Great Library at Alexandria, Egypt  is founded  -  Third Samnite War ends, Samnites become allies of Rome

c.282 BC    Colossus of Rhodes (bronze100 feet tall) completed, only to be destroyed by an earthquake 56 years later in 226 BC.        

   281-275    Greeks in S/E Italy form army under   Pyrrhus,  King of Epirus-N/W Greece,  move on Rome and are repelled

    280 BC    Pyrrhus defeats Romans at battle of Heraclea (south end of Italy)

    280 BC    Great Lighthouse (Pharos) of Alexandria, Egypt completed by  Ptolemy-II

    279 BC    Pyrrhus defeats Roman forces at Asculum (south Adriatic coast of Italy)

    278 BC    Pyrrhus invades Sicily 

    278 BC June 20 - Dedication and associated rites of Temple of Jupiter Summanus, who presided over thunder

    275 BC    Pyrrhus defeated by Rome at Beneventum (s/c Italy),  Pyrrhus withdraws from Italia

    272 BC    Tarantum-S/E Italy,  center of Greek influence in Italy,  falls to the Romans

    269 BC    First silver coins produced by the Romans, called "Moneta" to honor the Goddess "Juno", their advisor or "moneta".  From the term "moneta" we get our words for money and mint.

    264 BC    First gladiatorial games and combat takes place in Rome as part of a funeral celebration.

   264-241    First Punic War (named for "Punicia" as Carthage was known to Rome - aka "Sicilian War") with Cathage begins 

    260 BC    Romans,  in first major sea victory,   defeat Carthaginians near Mylae (n/e Sicily)

    260 BC    Gladiatorial contests begin in Rome as public funeral displays  

    256 BC    Romans defeat Carthaginians at sea near Agrigentum (s/c Sicily)

    255 BC    Roman invasion of Africa near Carthage ends in defeat

    249 BC    Carthaginians defeat Romans at sea near Drepana (n/w Sicily)

    241 BC    Romans defeat Carthaginian forces at sea near Aegates Islands off western tip of Sicily  to end First Punic War ("Sicilian War")   and take control of Sicily

    240 BC    June 19  Eratosthenes estimates circumference of the Earth

    240 BC    Earliest known observation of Halley's Comet, as recorded by the Chinese as a "Broom Star"

    238 BC    Carthage cedes Corsica and Sardinia to Rome

   237-218    Carthage gains control of southern Spain

    235 BC    Rome is at peace for the first time in its history

c.234 BC    Ch'in Shin Haung Ti (King Cheng) begins unification of China

   229-228    First Illyian War,  with pirates

    226 BC    Treaty of Ebro River with Carthage

    226 BC    Bronze Colossus of Rhodes felled by an earthquake after standing for only 56 years.

    225 BC    Rome (76,000) defeats Gauls (70,000) at Battle of Telamon (btwn Rome & Pisa) Gallic Invasion (225-222), which removed the Gallic threat to Rome. 

    221 BC    Ch'in Dynasty begins after first unification of China by Ch'in Shih Haung Ti (King Cheng)

    221 BC    First sections of the Wall of China built

    219 BC    Second Illyrian War with pirates  -   Hannibal invades Hispania (Spain-France) at Saguntum (east coast of Spain)

   218-201    Second Punic (aka "Hannibalic") War  -  Hannibal's invasion of Italy turned-back  -  Rome takes control of most of  Spain

    218 BC    Romans mount counter-attack against Carthaginian forces in Spain  -  Hannibal leads army to Italy. 

    218 BC    Up to 20,000 of Hannibal's soldiers, 2000 of his horses and several elephants were lost in avalanches while crossing the Alps from Spain into Italy.

    218 BC  December - Roman army (40,000) defeated at Battle of Trebia (near Milan) by forces (36,000) of Hannibal, during 2nd Punic War (219-202).   

    217 BC    Q. FABIUS  MAXIMUS  -   Dictator

    217 BC June 21 - Battle of  Lake Trasimene (n/c Italy - 2nd Punic War 219-202) where Hannibal was victorius over Roman forces (15,000 killed) 

    217 BC June 22 - Ptolemy-VI defeats Antiochus-III at battle of Raphia, by one reckoning 

    216 BC 2, Aug - Battle of Cannae (2nd Punic War, 218-201 - s/e Italian coast)  in which Hannibal defeated two Roman Consular Armies (8 Roman and 8 Allied Legions) totalling 80,000 men (50,000 killed).

c.215 BC    Construction of first Great (Ch'in) Wall of China, 3000 miles long and 20 feet high, from northwestern Korea to Lintoa in western China.   Portions still survive in good condition after 2000 years.

c.215 BC    Smelting and casting of iron and first iron swords developed in China

    214 BC    First Macedonian War of Rome against Philip V of Macedon commences

    213 BC    Seige of Syracuse by the Romans begins 

    212 BC    Death of Archimedes,  Greek mathematician (287-212 BC)

    211 BC    Syracuse, Sicily, captured by Romans

  c.211 BC   Great Wall of China (old & new sections) unified by Ch'in Shih Huang Ti (King Cheng) of the Ch'in Dynasty 

    210 BC    Ch'in Shih Huang Ti dies and is succeded by his weakling son

    209 BC    Uprising in China over the building of the Great Ch'in Wall 

    207 BC    Battle of Metaurus (south of Fano on Adriatic coast of Italy), 2nd Punic War (219-202) where Marcus Livius and Claudius Nero and Roman force of 50,000 defeated a Carthginian army (50,000 with war elephants) under Hasdrubal (brother of Hannibal) and was the turning point in expelling the Carthginians from Italy.   

    206 BC    Ch'in Dynasty ends in China - The shortest of the great dynasties of China (15 years)

    206 BC    Han Dynasty begins in China

    205 BC    P. Cornelius SCIPIO (Africanus) - Consul

    204 BC    Scipio launches Roman invasion of Africa from Lilybaenum in Sicily  -  First Macedonian Wars ends

    203 BC    Hannibal withdraws from Italy to defend Carthage against Scipio

    202 BC    Battle of Zama (s/w of Carthage) where Scipio (43,000) gained a Roman victory over Hannibal (48,000), thus bringing the Second Punic War (219-202) to an end. 

    202 BC    China reunited under Han Dynasty

    201 BC    2nd Punic War ends with Hannibel's invasion of Italy turned-back  -  Rome takes control of most of  Spain

c. 200 BC (553 AUC)   Roman "New Year" moved from Kalends Martius (Mar. 1st) back to Kalends Januarius (Jan. 1st).  Kalends Martius continued to be a day of significance to the Romans.  

    200 BC    Second Macedonian War,  of Rome against Philip V of Macedon,  begins

    200 BC    First known fire pump in use, Alexandria, Egypt 

c. 200 BC    Roman New Year moved from March 1st / Kalends Martius to January 1st / Kalends Januarius    

    197 BC    Roman forces defeat Macedonian phalanx at  Cynoscephalae (eastern Greece) to end  2nd Macedonian War (200-196) and give Rome control of Greece 

    196 BC    Rosetta Stone created in Memphis, Egypt, to be rediscovered near the town of Rosetta in Egypt in 1798.  The "Stone" was the key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics.  

    194 BC    P. Cornelius SCIPIO (Africanus) - Consul   -  Roman forces withdrawn from Greece

    192 BC    Antiochus-III  invades Greece

    191 BC    Rome victorius over Seleucid King Antiochus in battle of Thermopylae   -  Antiochus retreats from Greece  -   Beginning of Roman world domination

    190 BC    Rome victorius over Antiochus-III in Battle of Magnesia (western Turkey) 

    179 BC    Dedication of the Temple of Diana and a Temple of Juno Regina in Campus Martias by M. Aemilius  Lepidus  

    179 BC  June 29,  Dedication of Temple for Hercules and Muses 

    174 BC    The Circus Maximus in Rome reconstructed

    172 BC    Rome commences Third Macedonain War (172-167) against   Perseus (son of Philip V) of Macedon 

    168 BC  June 22,  Battle of Pydna (eastern Greece),  Third Macedonian War (172-167) ends with the defeat of Perseus of Macedon (son of Philip V) and his army of 44,000 by Lucius Aemilius Paulus and Roman force of 25,000 after which Macedonia (Greece) becomes a  Roman Province. 

  167 - 141   Maccabean Revolt of Jewish rebels against the Seleucids 

    164 BC    Judah Maccabee reconsecrates 2nd Temple at Jeruselem, now celebrated as Hanukkah

   162-161    Numidian King Massinissa takes the Emporia from Carthage with Rome's consent

c. 160 BC    "Han" Wall built, extending the "Ch'in" Wall 300 miles west into the Gobi Desert (China). 

    154 BC    Roman New Year moved from Kalends-Martius (Mar.-1st) to Kalends- Januarius (Jan. 1st) 

   149-146    Third Punic War  -  Carthage conquered and destroyed by Rome  -  Africa becomes the Roman Province of "Africa Vetus"

    146 BC    Corinth invested and Greece,  along with Macedonia,  becomes  the Roman Province of Achaea

    146 BC    Massacres of Italian traders at Cirta (Numidia) brings war between Rome and Numidian Prince Jugurtha

    142 BC    First stone bridge,  Pons Aemilius,   constructed over River Tiber at Rome (only 1 arch survives today)

    141 BC    Parthians take control of Mesopotania

   141 - 63    Independent Kingdom of Judea ruled by the Hasmonaeans (Maccabees)

    135 BC    Slave revolt on Sicily begins

    134 BC    Roman siege of Numantia begins

    133 BC    Rome takes control of Ephesus, in W. Turkey (world capitol of slave trade), Numantia destroyed 

    133 BC    Pergamum (western Turkey) bequeathed to Rome in "will" of  Attalus-III,  its last king 

    114 BC  Dedication of the Temple to Venus Verticordia (Venus who turns hearts) 

    113 BC    Germanic tribes "Cimbri and Teutones" defeat Romans at Norea (N.Balkans) and invade Gaul

   112 BC    Rome commences war against King Jugurtha of Numidia

    111 BC    Jugurthine War against King Jugurtha of Numidia begins

    111 BC    Lepcis signs treaty with Rome

    109 BC    Q. Caecilius METALLUS  -  Consul

    107 BC    Marius elected Consol and is sent to Africa to engage Jugurtha 

    106 BC  Jan-3  Cicero is born 

    104 BC    Second slave revolt in Sicily begins   -  Gaius Marius becomes a Consul

    105 BC    Gaius Marius defeats King Jugurtha of Numidia (west of ancient Carthage)  -  Romans defeated by Germanic forces at Battle of Orange (southern France)  

    102 BC    Gaius Marius defeats Teutones,  north of Alps

    101 BC    Gaius Marius defeats Cimbri,  north of Alps  -  Slave revolt in Sicily put down

    100 BC    Gaius Marius assumes control of the Military  -  Opens Army service to non-land owning citizens  - 

    100 BC    July 12 - Julius Caesar is born in Rome   -  Chinese develop use of paper  

      96 BC    Cyreniaca (N.Libya) ceded to Rome  upon death of Ptolemy Apion

      91-89     Social War - Strabo and Sulla suppress Italian uprising

      89 BC    First Mithridatic War (89-84) with Rome begins when King Mithridates of Pontus (Turkey-Armenia) invades Roman provinces in Asia

      88 BC    General Lucius Cornelius SULLA becomes Consol  -  Roman Civil War begins when he marches on Rome and is opposed by Marius

      87 BC    Sulla goes to Greece and besieges Athens  -  Marius & Cinna take control of Rome  

      86 BC    Sulla defeats King Mithridates at Chaeronea (n/w of Athens, Greece) to re-secure Roman territory in Greece & Asia, during 1st Mithridatic War (89 - 84)

      82 BC    Battle of Porta Collina - Sulla defeats Samnite Army of Telesinus

      82 BC    SULLA  returns to Rome,   quells opposition to end Civil War and becomes dictator of Rome

      82 BC    Birth of Marcus Antonius  aka  Mark Antony

      81 BC    Julius Caesar flees to Asia Minor  -  Fights against Mithridates at Cilicia

      79 BC    SULLA   abidcates,  returns to private life and dies shortly thereafter

      78 BC    Julius Caesar returns to Rome after the death of Sulla

      77-72     Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) campaigns in Gaul against rebel leader Setorius

  c. 75 BC    Oldest known stone amphitheater, seating 20,000, completed in Pompeii

      73 BC    Sparticus leads slave uprising

      72 BC    Pompey defeats Setorius's Rebellion in Spain - Setorius murdered by his own officers

      71 BC    Sparticus killed in battle lead by Crassus, at Apulia  -  Survivors crucified along the Via Apia

      70 BC    Consulship of Crassus and Pompey begins

      68-67     Crete becomes a Roman province after Metellus defeats pirates there

      67 BC    Pompey quells piracy in eastern Mediterrean  -  Destroys pirate strongholds in Cilcia (S.Turkey)

      66 BC    Pompey  re-defeats   Mithridates  at Nicopolis (Armenia)

      64 BC    Syria becomes Roman province   -  Judea becomes a Roman dependency

      63 BC    M. Tullius CICERO - Consul

      63 BC    Roman General Pompey is invited to help settle a disputed succession to the Hasmodaeans (Maccabean) throne and ends up occupying Judea 

      62 BC    Pompey conquers Jerusalem and returns to Rome

  c. 61 BC    Rome gains control of Zeugma "The Bridge" in Turkey,  site of the only bridge across the Euphrates River in ancient times

      60-53     First Triumvirate begins   -  G. JULIUS  CAESAR  -  POMPEY  -  M. Lincinius CRASSUS

      59 BC    Livy (Titus Livius  died 17 AD)  Great Roman Historian is born 

     58 - 50     Julius Caesar fights the Gallic Wars

      58 BC    Julius Caesar appointed Proconsul-Governor of  Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul and Illyricum.

      58 BC    Caesar begins his campaigns in Gaul  -  Cicero is exiled

      58 BC Aug-Sept - Battle of Mulhouse (upper Rhine, France) where Caesar with 6 legions (40,000) repelled a Germanic force of 70,000 invading into Gaul.

      57 BC    Cicero's exile ends  -   Caesar conquers the Belgians

      56 BC    Julius Caesar bridges the Rhine and campaigns against German tribes 

     55 - 38    First Roman-Parthian War in Turkey and Syria

      55 BC    Julius Caesar makes 1st expedition into Great Britain

      55 BC     First permanent stone theater built in Pompeii 

      54 BC    Julius Caesar conducts 2nd expedition into Great Britain

      53 BC, June - Crassus defeated and killed by Parthians at Battle of Carrhae (Harran Turkey) 1st Parthian War, 55 - 38) -  First Triumvirate ends

      52 BC    Julius Caesar with 70,000,  defeats Gallic leader Vercingetorix, with 353,000 Gallic Army at Alesia (Eastern .France) completing Caesar's conquest of Gaul. 

      52 BC    Julius Caesar   takes control of Lutetia Parisiorum (now Paris) from the Gallic tribe Parisii

      51 - 31   Ptolemy XXII  and   Cleopatra  rulers of  Egypt

       49 BC   Jan-11  Julius Caesar proclaims "Alea iacta est"-"The Die is Cast!" and leads his legions across the Rubicon River into Italy;  thus initiating a civil war against Pompey.     

       49 BC    Julius Caesar with his Legions, occupies Rome  -  Pompey and some Senators flee to Greece

       49-44    JULIUS  CAESAR - Dictator

      48 BC   June 3  Pompey sets out for Heraclea

      48 BC  Aug 9  Battle of Pharsalia, (Central Greece) War of 1st Triumvirate,  Pompey and his army (52,000), pursued by  J.Caesar (23,000), was defeated.  Pompey flees to Egypt, where he was murdered. 

      48-47    Alexandrain War - Julius Caesar defeats Ptolemy, King of Egypt,  places Cleopatra on throne of Egypt and becomes her lover,  Conquers Pharnaces in Pontus in Asia Minor and proclaims "Veni, Vidi, Vici" (I came, I saw, I conquered) 

      47 BC June 23  Birth of Caesarion, aka Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor (son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra)     

      46 BC    Julius Caesar defeats Metellus Scipio, Juba I - King of Numidia and  remaining forces of Pompey at Thapsus,  south of ancient Carthage

      46 BC    Julius Caesar reforms Roman Calendar with 30 days in  April, June, Sept & Nov and 28/29 days for Feb to create the "Julian" calendar;  which was in use thru 1582 and after,   until the "Gregorian" calendar was adopted.

      45 BC  March 17  Julius Caesar defeats Pompey's sons at Munda (S.Spain) during War of the First Triumvirate.  The battle was Caesar's last and hardest fought engagement.  

      44 BC    Julius Caesar,  in February,  declares himself  "Dictator for Life"

      44 BC    Julius Caesar assassinated with 23 stab wounds,  on 15th (Ides) of March by a group of Senators who oppose one-man rule;  thus ending Civil War 

      43 BC  Dec-7  Cicero dies 

      43-33    Second Triumvirate   -  Julius Caesar Octavianus (OCTAVIAN)  -  Marcus Antonius (MARK ANTONY)  -  M. Aemilius LEPIDUS

      42 BC    Antony and Octavian with force of 103,000, defeat Bruttus , Oct-26, and Cassius, Nov-16 (total 110,000), at Phillipi (Kavala) in Macedonia.  Bruttus and Cassius both committed suicide after their defeats. 

      43 BC    Dec-7   Cicero assassinated by agents of Mark Antony

      40 BC    Antony and Octavian divide Empire between them,  leaving Lepidus to rule Africa 

      40 - 4     Reign of Herod the Great, who was appointed by Rome to rule Judea

      37 BC    Herod conquers Jerusalem from the Hasmodeans (Maccabeans) - He expands the Temple Mount and restores the 2nd Temple, which is rededicated in 10 BC  

      38 BC    Herod is appointed as Governor of  Judia - Rules until  4 BC

      38 BC    June 9  Roman forces defeat and kill Pacorus, Parthian General at Battle of Gindarus

      37-31     Herod ornately renovates the ancient mountaintop fortress at Masada,  near the Dead Sea

      36 BC    Octavian defeats Sextus,   son of  Pompey in sea battle at Naulochus (N.Sicily) and regains control of Sicily

      36 BC    Lepidus rebels against Octavian and is stripped of power  -  Octavian takes control of Africa

      34 BC    Antony  gives control of   Eastern Roman Territories to Cleopatra and her sons

      31 BC    Octavian fleet advances on   Actium (W.Greece) and defeats fleet of  Antony & Cleopatra,  who flee back to Egypt

      30 BC    Octavian's Army marches on Egypt   -  Antony & Cleopatra commit suicide  -  Egypt becomes Roman province  -  Caesarea (port city) becomes Roman capitol of Palestine under Herod the Great

      30-27     OCTAVIAN  -  Consul with Special Powers 

      29 BC    Restoration of Temple Quirinus 

      27 BC    Pantheon  built for the first time under  Agrippa 



SOURCES:  Penquin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome - Viking Press - 1995

                      Time line of  NovaRoma - Ancient Rome Reborn  website

                      Rand McNally  HistoMap of World History 

                      RogueClassicism, David Meadows  www.atrium-media.com/rogueclassicism  

                    "Information Please" on-line encyclopedia 

                      The Battle Book - Bryan Perrett - 1992

* *  SPQR  * *  753 BC  -  2205 YEARS  -  1453 AD   * *  SPQR  * *






Its Now History - You are the

Hit Counter

Visitor  to the  Time Line  of   Republican Rome  Page of  Legion XXIV

We hope we answered at least some of your questions about the History of Rome.

Additions, Corrections  and/or  Clarifications  are most welcome.