LEGION XXIV MA
TIME-LINE CRONOLOGY OF
REPUBLICAN ROME AND RELATED HISTORY
LAST UPDATED June 22, 2013
A Compilation assembled to more easily comprehend the History of Ancient Rome and its relationship to other Events in Ancient World History
The Fasces and Maniple Signum Standard - Two icons of the Roman Republic.
ROMAN REPUBLICAN PERIOD 510 BC to 27 BC
Major Leaders of the Republic are listed with major name in FULL CAPITOL Letters
510 BC June 14 Roman Republic established controlled by two annually elected "Consuls"
509 BC Lucius Junius BRUTUS - Consul
509 BC Traditional date for first navigation treaty between Rome and Carthage
508 BC Horatius Cocles repells Etruscans at Sublicius Bridge in Rome - First Treaty between Rome and Carthage
507 BC Death of Pythagoras, Greek philosopher and mathematician (c. 582 c. 507 B.C.E.)
506 BC Victory at Aricia over Lars Porsenna, finally ends Etruscan control in Roman territory
500 BC Mule Cart Race added to Olympic Games
c. 500 BC Spinning Wheel comes into use in India for spinning thread
496 BC Roman forces defeat Latins at Lake Regillus
493 BC Latin League established by treaty
490 BC Battle of Marathon, where Greeks defeat the Persians in battles at Bay of Marathon, 26 miles northeast of Athens. News of the victory was carried by famed runner Pheidippedes, who ran the 26 miles to Athens. This event is now commemorated in the modern 26 mile long "Marathon" Race.
486 BC Death of Darius of Persia, son Xerxes-I rules Persia until 465 BC
484 BC Temple of Castor and Pollux dedicated at Forum Romanum in Rome
c. 483 BC Death of Buddha (c.563 - c.483 BC.)
480 BC Battle of Thermopylae (Lamia, Greece), Graeco-Persian War (499-448), Persian forces of 100,000 defeat a heroic stand of 300 Spartans at Thermopylae Pass
480 BC Persian fleet destroyed by Greece and Sparta at Salamis
479 BC 120,000 Persians finally defeated on the Plain of Plataea (Thebes) by Greek and Spartan forces of 80,000 during Graeco-Persian War (499-448)
479 BC Death of Confucius (551- 479 BC)
464 BC Death of Persian King Xerxes-I, his son Artaxerxes-I rules Persia until 424 BC
460 BC Hippocrates, Greek Father of Medicine born
458 BC Lucius Quinctius CINCINNATUS - Dictator - Later abdicates and returns to farming
455 BC June 2 Gaiseric and the Vandals sack Rome
451-450 "Decemvirate" a council of ten magistrates rules Rome
450 BC The "Twelve Tables" (of bronze) created in Rome, defining the civil rights of the people and codes of law; that became the basis of modern western criminal law and civil rights. They were probably destroyed in an invasion in 387 BC.
450-400 Flowering of Greek culture during the Age of Pericles
c. 444 BC Great statue of Athena by Phidias (c.500-c.432 BC )in the Parthenon dedicated on the Acropolis in Athens Greece.
c.435 BC Great Temple of Zeus on Olympia erected
431-404 Peloponnesian Wars between Athens and Sparta - Sparta victorious
430 BC A great plague, (bubonic?) the first to strike Europe?, kills 1/3 of population, ravages the Athean Greek Empire and leads to its demise and eventual defeat by the Spartans,
429 BC Death of Pericles (443-429), possibly due to plague of 430. Pericles brought the Athean Greek Empire to its zenith.
424 BC Artaxerxes (grandson of Darius) dies
421 BC Greek historian Plato recounts Legend of Atlantis
420 BC Spartans are banned from the Olympic Games at Elis, as Sparta was at War with Athens, with which Elis had concluded a treaty.
415-413 Siege of Syracuse (east coast of Sicely), Peloponnesian War (431-404), Athenians (22,000) attempt to capture Syracuse from the Spartans (22,000) and are defeated, marking the beginning of the decline of Athens and the rise of Sparta.
408 BC Two Horse Chariot Race becomes a part of the Olympic Games
405 BC Seige of Viee, north of Rome, begins
404 BC Peloponnesian Wars end, with victory for Sparta over Athens, after 27 years
401 BC Battle of Cunaxa, First Persian Civil War, near Babylon, in which Cyrus of Persia was killed in an attempt (with a Spartan and Greek contingent) to seize the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II.
c. 400 BC First historical evidence for use of catapults in war (Syracuse, Sicily - Greece vs Carthage) Catapult Ballista Page
c. 400 BC Greek City of Sparta at his height of power has 25,000 citizens and 500,000 slaves (do the per person math)
c. 400 BC Blast furnace permitting iron to be smelted to a liquid (2600oF 1500oC) comes into use in China.
399 BC Trial and execution of Greek philosopher Socrates
396 BC Rome captures and destroys Viee, north of Rome, after a 10 year siege, in its first major military campaign
396 BC Competition for Trumpeters and Heralds (town criers) added to the Olympic Games
391 BC Celtic raids into Roman territory
390 BC Celtic Gauls, under Quinctilus, sack the City of Rome
388 BC June-1 Dedication of Temple to Mars and associated rites
378 BC Servian Wall, 6 miles long, completed around City of Rome; in response to Celtic attack in 390
371 BC July - Battle of Leuctra, War of the Greek City States, Thebes, Greece. A Thebian force of 6,000 destroys the military prestige of Sparta (force of 11,000)
356 BC Temple of Artemus destroyed by arson fire
356 BC June - Birth of Alexander the Great by some reckonings
352 BC Great Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, Asia Minor, erected in memory of Mausolus of Caria.
348 BC Second Navigation Treaty between Rome and Carthage
c.347 BC Death of Plato (c.427 - 347 BC)
344 BC June-1 Dedication of Temple to Juno Moneta
343-341 First Samnite War with tribes in south central Italy - Short and Inconclusive
340-338 Latin War in which Rome gains control of Latium, the region around the City of Rome
338 BC 2, Aug - Battle of Chaeronea (n/w of Athens Greece) which gave Macedonia control of Central Greece after 4th Sacred War (339-338)
335-330 Alexander the Great destroys Thebes (335), takes Ephesus (334), conquers Tyre & Jerusalem (332), occupies Babylon (330)
334 BC May - Alexander's forces of 18,100 defeats Persian forces of 15,000 at River Granicus (n/w Asia-Minor)
333 BC Oct. - Battle of Issus (s/e Turkey) Alexander defeats forces of Darius III and continues to Egypt and then into Persia.
333-332 Alexander the Great invades and conquers the Persian Empire and Egypt and founds City of Alexandria in Egypt
332 BC Alexander conquers City of Tyre
c.329 BC Circus Maximus in Rome completed
331 BC 1, Oct - Battle of Arbela on Plain of Guagamela, northern Iraq - Persian Army of Darius (250,000) destroyed by Alexander the Great with 47,000. Alexander takes control of Persian Empire.
330 BC Alexander conquers Persian Capitol City of Persepolis, city destroyed by fire
327-304 Second Samnite War begins
326 BC June - Alexander the Great's calvary of archers wins the Battle of the Hydaspes River `(Jalapur, Pakistan), as far east as Alexander would conquer, after his troops refused to go further.
323 BC June 13 Death of Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) in Babylon - Euclid's work on geometry
322 BC Death of Aristotle, sometimes called "Stagirite", Greek philosopher (384-322 BC)
321 BC Roman army defeated by the Samnites at Caudine Forks (north of Naples)
c.320 BC Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle
312 BC Aqua Appia, first aquaduct to Rome, from 10 miles east, begun - and the Via Appia also called "Statius (Queen of Roads)" begun; both under supervision of Censor Appius Claudius Caecus (the Blind)
306 BC Third Treaty between Rome and Carthage
304 BC Second Samnite War ends with some territorial gains for Rome
c. 300 BC Alexandria becomes first city in history with a population of one million
298-290 Third Samnite War expands Roman control across the Apennines to the Adriatic Sea
c. 296 BC Dedication of Temple of Bellona and associated rites
292 BC Great Lighthouse (Pharos) of Alexandria, Egypt - construction begins.
290 BC The Great Library at Alexandria, Egypt is founded - Third Samnite War ends, Samnites become allies of Rome
c.282 BC Colossus of Rhodes (bronze100 feet tall) completed, only to be destroyed by an earthquake 56 years later in 226 BC.
281-275 Greeks in S/E Italy form army under Pyrrhus, King of Epirus-N/W Greece, move on Rome and are repelled
280 BC Pyrrhus defeats Romans at battle of Heraclea (south end of Italy)
280 BC Great Lighthouse (Pharos) of Alexandria, Egypt completed by Ptolemy-II
279 BC Pyrrhus defeats Roman forces at Asculum (south Adriatic coast of Italy)
278 BC Pyrrhus invades Sicily
278 BC June 20 - Dedication and associated rites of Temple of Jupiter Summanus, who presided over thunder
275 BC Pyrrhus defeated by Rome at Beneventum (s/c Italy), Pyrrhus withdraws from Italia
272 BC Tarantum-S/E Italy, center of Greek influence in Italy, falls to the Romans
269 BC First silver coins produced by the Romans, called "Moneta" to honor the Goddess "Juno", their advisor or "moneta". From the term "moneta" we get our words for money and mint.
264 BC First gladiatorial games and combat takes place in Rome as part of a funeral celebration.
264-241 First Punic War (named for "Punicia" as Carthage was known to Rome - aka "Sicilian War") with Cathage begins
260 BC Romans, in first major sea victory, defeat Carthaginians near Mylae (n/e Sicily)
260 BC Gladiatorial contests begin in Rome as public funeral displays
256 BC Romans defeat Carthaginians at sea near Agrigentum (s/c Sicily)
255 BC Roman invasion of Africa near Carthage ends in defeat
249 BC Carthaginians defeat Romans at sea near Drepana (n/w Sicily)
241 BC Romans defeat Carthaginian forces at sea near Aegates Islands off western tip of Sicily to end First Punic War ("Sicilian War") and take control of Sicily
240 BC June 19 Eratosthenes estimates circumference of the Earth
240 BC Earliest known observation of Halley's Comet, as recorded by the Chinese as a "Broom Star"
238 BC Carthage cedes Corsica and Sardinia to Rome
237-218 Carthage gains control of southern Spain
235 BC Rome is at peace for the first time in its history
c.234 BC Ch'in Shin Haung Ti (King Cheng) begins unification of China
229-228 First Illyian War, with pirates
226 BC Treaty of Ebro River with Carthage
226 BC Bronze Colossus of Rhodes felled by an earthquake after standing for only 56 years.
225 BC Rome (76,000) defeats Gauls (70,000) at Battle of Telamon (btwn Rome & Pisa) Gallic Invasion (225-222), which removed the Gallic threat to Rome.
221 BC Ch'in Dynasty begins after first unification of China by Ch'in Shih Haung Ti (King Cheng)
221 BC First sections of the Wall of China built
219 BC Second Illyrian War with pirates - Hannibal invades Hispania (Spain-France) at Saguntum (east coast of Spain)
218-201 Second Punic (aka "Hannibalic") War - Hannibal's invasion of Italy turned-back - Rome takes control of most of Spain
218 BC Romans mount counter-attack against Carthaginian forces in Spain - Hannibal leads army to Italy.
218 BC Up to 20,000 of Hannibal's soldiers, 2000 of his horses and several elephants were lost in avalanches while crossing the Alps from Spain into Italy.
218 BC December - Roman army (40,000) defeated at Battle of Trebia (near Milan) by forces (36,000) of Hannibal, during 2nd Punic War (219-202).
217 BC Q. FABIUS MAXIMUS - Dictator
217 BC June 21 - Battle of Lake Trasimene (n/c Italy - 2nd Punic War 219-202) where Hannibal was victorius over Roman forces (15,000 killed)
217 BC June 22 - Ptolemy-VI defeats Antiochus-III at battle of Raphia, by one reckoning
216 BC 2, Aug - Battle of Cannae (2nd Punic War, 218-201 - s/e Italian coast) in which Hannibal defeated two Roman Consular Armies (8 Roman and 8 Allied Legions) totalling 80,000 men (50,000 killed).
c.215 BC Construction of first Great (Ch'in) Wall of China, 3000 miles long and 20 feet high, from northwestern Korea to Lintoa in western China. Portions still survive in good condition after 2000 years.
c.215 BC Smelting and casting of iron and first iron swords developed in China
214 BC First Macedonian War of Rome against Philip V of Macedon commences
213 BC Seige of Syracuse by the Romans begins
212 BC Death of Archimedes, Greek mathematician (287-212 BC)
211 BC Syracuse, Sicily, captured by Romans
c.211 BC Great Wall of China (old & new sections) unified by Ch'in Shih Huang Ti (King Cheng) of the Ch'in Dynasty
210 BC Ch'in Shih Huang Ti dies and is succeded by his weakling son
209 BC Uprising in China over the building of the Great Ch'in Wall
207 BC Battle of Metaurus (south of Fano on Adriatic coast of Italy), 2nd Punic War (219-202) where Marcus Livius and Claudius Nero and Roman force of 50,000 defeated a Carthginian army (50,000 with war elephants) under Hasdrubal (brother of Hannibal) and was the turning point in expelling the Carthginians from Italy.
206 BC Ch'in Dynasty ends in China - The shortest of the great dynasties of China (15 years)
206 BC Han Dynasty begins in China
205 BC P. Cornelius SCIPIO (Africanus) - Consul
204 BC Scipio launches Roman invasion of Africa from Lilybaenum in Sicily - First Macedonian Wars ends
203 BC Hannibal withdraws from Italy to defend Carthage against Scipio
202 BC Battle of Zama (s/w of Carthage) where Scipio (43,000) gained a Roman victory over Hannibal (48,000), thus bringing the Second Punic War (219-202) to an end.
202 BC China reunited under Han Dynasty
201 BC 2nd Punic War ends with Hannibel's invasion of Italy turned-back - Rome takes control of most of Spain
c. 200 BC (553 AUC) Roman "New Year" moved from Kalends Martius (Mar. 1st) back to Kalends Januarius (Jan. 1st). Kalends Martius continued to be a day of significance to the Romans.
200 BC Second Macedonian War, of Rome against Philip V of Macedon, begins
200 BC First known fire pump in use, Alexandria, Egypt
c. 200 BC Roman New Year moved from March 1st / Kalends Martius to January 1st / Kalends Januarius
197 BC Roman forces defeat Macedonian phalanx at Cynoscephalae (eastern Greece) to end 2nd Macedonian War (200-196) and give Rome control of Greece
196 BC Rosetta Stone created in Memphis, Egypt, to be rediscovered near the town of Rosetta in Egypt in 1798. The "Stone" was the key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics.
194 BC P. Cornelius SCIPIO (Africanus) - Consul - Roman forces withdrawn from Greece
192 BC Antiochus-III invades Greece
191 BC Rome victorius over Seleucid King Antiochus in battle of Thermopylae - Antiochus retreats from Greece - Beginning of Roman world domination
190 BC Rome victorius over Antiochus-III in Battle of Magnesia (western Turkey)
179 BC Dedication of the Temple of Diana and a Temple of Juno Regina in Campus Martias by M. Aemilius Lepidus
179 BC June 29, Dedication of Temple for Hercules and Muses
174 BC The Circus Maximus in Rome reconstructed
172 BC Rome commences Third Macedonain War (172-167) against Perseus (son of Philip V) of Macedon
168 BC June 22, Battle of Pydna (eastern Greece), Third Macedonian War (172-167) ends with the defeat of Perseus of Macedon (son of Philip V) and his army of 44,000 by Lucius Aemilius Paulus and Roman force of 25,000 after which Macedonia (Greece) becomes a Roman Province.
167 - 141 Maccabean Revolt of Jewish rebels against the Seleucids
164 BC Judah Maccabee reconsecrates 2nd Temple at Jeruselem, now celebrated as Hanukkah
162-161 Numidian King Massinissa takes the Emporia from Carthage with Rome's consent
c. 160 BC "Han" Wall built, extending the "Ch'in" Wall 300 miles west into the Gobi Desert (China).
154 BC Roman New Year moved from Kalends-Martius (Mar.-1st) to Kalends- Januarius (Jan. 1st)
149-146 Third Punic War - Carthage conquered and destroyed by Rome - Africa becomes the Roman Province of "Africa Vetus"
146 BC Corinth invested and Greece, along with Macedonia, becomes the Roman Province of Achaea
146 BC Massacres of Italian traders at Cirta (Numidia) brings war between Rome and Numidian Prince Jugurtha
142 BC First stone bridge, Pons Aemilius, constructed over River Tiber at Rome (only 1 arch survives today)
141 BC Parthians take control of Mesopotania
141 - 63 Independent Kingdom of Judea ruled by the Hasmonaeans (Maccabees)
135 BC Slave revolt on Sicily begins
134 BC Roman siege of Numantia begins
133 BC Rome takes control of Ephesus, in W. Turkey (world capitol of slave trade), Numantia destroyed
133 BC Pergamum (western Turkey) bequeathed to Rome in "will" of Attalus-III, its last king
114 BC Dedication of the Temple to Venus Verticordia (Venus who turns hearts)
113 BC Germanic tribes "Cimbri and Teutones" defeat Romans at Norea (N.Balkans) and invade Gaul
112 BC Rome commences war against King Jugurtha of Numidia
111 BC Jugurthine War against King Jugurtha of Numidia begins
111 BC Lepcis signs treaty with Rome
109 BC Q. Caecilius METALLUS - Consul
107 BC Marius elected Consol and is sent to Africa to engage Jugurtha
106 BC Jan-3 Cicero is born
104 BC Second slave revolt in Sicily begins - Gaius Marius becomes a Consul
105 BC Gaius Marius defeats King Jugurtha of Numidia (west of ancient Carthage) - Romans defeated by Germanic forces at Battle of Orange (southern France)
102 BC Gaius Marius defeats Teutones, north of Alps
101 BC Gaius Marius defeats Cimbri, north of Alps - Slave revolt in Sicily put down
100 BC Gaius Marius assumes control of the Military - Opens Army service to non-land owning citizens -
100 BC July 12 - Julius Caesar is born in Rome - Chinese develop use of paper
96 BC Cyreniaca (N.Libya) ceded to Rome upon death of Ptolemy Apion
91-89 Social War - Strabo and Sulla suppress Italian uprising
89 BC First Mithridatic War (89-84) with Rome begins when King Mithridates of Pontus (Turkey-Armenia) invades Roman provinces in Asia
88 BC General Lucius Cornelius SULLA becomes Consol - Roman Civil War begins when he marches on Rome and is opposed by Marius
87 BC Sulla goes to Greece and besieges Athens - Marius & Cinna take control of Rome
86 BC Sulla defeats King Mithridates at Chaeronea (n/w of Athens, Greece) to re-secure Roman territory in Greece & Asia, during 1st Mithridatic War (89 - 84)
82 BC Battle of Porta Collina - Sulla defeats Samnite Army of Telesinus
82 BC SULLA returns to Rome, quells opposition to end Civil War and becomes dictator of Rome
82 BC Birth of Marcus Antonius aka Mark Antony
81 BC Julius Caesar flees to Asia Minor - Fights against Mithridates at Cilicia
79 BC SULLA abidcates, returns to private life and dies shortly thereafter
78 BC Julius Caesar returns to Rome after the death of Sulla
77-72 Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) campaigns in Gaul against rebel leader Setorius
c. 75 BC Oldest known stone amphitheater, seating 20,000, completed in Pompeii
73 BC Sparticus leads slave uprising
72 BC Pompey defeats Setorius's Rebellion in Spain - Setorius murdered by his own officers
71 BC Sparticus killed in battle lead by Crassus, at Apulia - Survivors crucified along the Via Apia
70 BC Consulship of Crassus and Pompey begins
68-67 Crete becomes a Roman province after Metellus defeats pirates there
67 BC Pompey quells piracy in eastern Mediterrean - Destroys pirate strongholds in Cilcia (S.Turkey)
66 BC Pompey re-defeats Mithridates at Nicopolis (Armenia)
64 BC Syria becomes Roman province - Judea becomes a Roman dependency
63 BC M. Tullius CICERO - Consul
63 BC Roman General Pompey is invited to help settle a disputed succession to the Hasmodaeans (Maccabean) throne and ends up occupying Judea
62 BC Pompey conquers Jerusalem and returns to Rome
c. 61 BC Rome gains control of Zeugma "The Bridge" in Turkey, site of the only bridge across the Euphrates River in ancient times
60-53 First Triumvirate begins - G. JULIUS CAESAR - POMPEY - M. Lincinius CRASSUS
59 BC Livy (Titus Livius died 17 AD) Great Roman Historian is born
58 - 50 Julius Caesar fights the Gallic Wars
58 BC Julius Caesar appointed Proconsul-Governor of Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul and Illyricum.
58 BC Caesar begins his campaigns in Gaul - Cicero is exiled
58 BC Aug-Sept - Battle of Mulhouse (upper Rhine, France) where Caesar with 6 legions (40,000) repelled a Germanic force of 70,000 invading into Gaul.
57 BC Cicero's exile ends - Caesar conquers the Belgians
56 BC Julius Caesar bridges the Rhine and campaigns against German tribes
55 - 38 First Roman-Parthian War in Turkey and Syria
55 BC Julius Caesar makes 1st expedition into Great Britain
55 BC First permanent stone theater built in Pompeii
54 BC Julius Caesar conducts 2nd expedition into Great Britain
53 BC, June - Crassus defeated and killed by Parthians at Battle of Carrhae (Harran Turkey) 1st Parthian War, 55 - 38) - First Triumvirate ends
52 BC Julius Caesar with 70,000, defeats Gallic leader Vercingetorix, with 353,000 Gallic Army at Alesia (Eastern .France) completing Caesar's conquest of Gaul.
52 BC Julius Caesar takes control of Lutetia Parisiorum (now Paris) from the Gallic tribe Parisii
51 - 31 Ptolemy XXII and Cleopatra rulers of Egypt
49 BC Jan-11 Julius Caesar proclaims "Alea iacta est"-"The Die is Cast!" and leads his legions across the Rubicon River into Italy; thus initiating a civil war against Pompey.
49 BC Julius Caesar with his Legions, occupies Rome - Pompey and some Senators flee to Greece
49-44 JULIUS CAESAR - Dictator
48 BC June 3 Pompey sets out for Heraclea
48 BC Aug 9 Battle of Pharsalia, (Central Greece) War of 1st Triumvirate, Pompey and his army (52,000), pursued by J.Caesar (23,000), was defeated. Pompey flees to Egypt, where he was murdered.
48-47 Alexandrain War - Julius Caesar defeats Ptolemy, King of Egypt, places Cleopatra on throne of Egypt and becomes her lover, Conquers Pharnaces in Pontus in Asia Minor and proclaims "Veni, Vidi, Vici" (I came, I saw, I conquered)
47 BC June 23 Birth of Caesarion, aka Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor (son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra)
46 BC Julius Caesar defeats Metellus Scipio, Juba I - King of Numidia and remaining forces of Pompey at Thapsus, south of ancient Carthage
46 BC Julius Caesar reforms Roman Calendar with 30 days in April, June, Sept & Nov and 28/29 days for Feb to create the "Julian" calendar; which was in use thru 1582 and after, until the "Gregorian" calendar was adopted.
45 BC March 17 Julius Caesar defeats Pompey's sons at Munda (S.Spain) during War of the First Triumvirate. The battle was Caesar's last and hardest fought engagement.
44 BC Julius Caesar, in February, declares himself "Dictator for Life"
44 BC Julius Caesar assassinated with 23 stab wounds, on 15th (Ides) of March by a group of Senators who oppose one-man rule; thus ending Civil War
43 BC Dec-7 Cicero dies
43-33 Second Triumvirate - Julius Caesar Octavianus (OCTAVIAN) - Marcus Antonius (MARK ANTONY) - M. Aemilius LEPIDUS
42 BC Antony and Octavian with force of 103,000, defeat Bruttus , Oct-26, and Cassius, Nov-16 (total 110,000), at Phillipi (Kavala) in Macedonia. Bruttus and Cassius both committed suicide after their defeats.
43 BC Dec-7 Cicero assassinated by agents of Mark Antony
40 BC Antony and Octavian divide Empire between them, leaving Lepidus to rule Africa
40 - 4 Reign of Herod the Great, who was appointed by Rome to rule Judea
37 BC Herod conquers Jerusalem from the Hasmodeans (Maccabeans) - He expands the Temple Mount and restores the 2nd Temple, which is rededicated in 10 BC
38 BC Herod is appointed as Governor of Judia - Rules until 4 BC
38 BC June 9 Roman forces defeat and kill Pacorus, Parthian General at Battle of Gindarus
37-31 Herod ornately renovates the ancient mountaintop fortress at Masada, near the Dead Sea
36 BC Octavian defeats Sextus, son of Pompey in sea battle at Naulochus (N.Sicily) and regains control of Sicily
36 BC Lepidus rebels against Octavian and is stripped of power - Octavian takes control of Africa
34 BC Antony gives control of Eastern Roman Territories to Cleopatra and her sons
31 BC Octavian fleet advances on Actium (W.Greece) and defeats fleet of Antony & Cleopatra, who flee back to Egypt
30 BC Octavian's Army marches on Egypt - Antony & Cleopatra commit suicide - Egypt becomes Roman province - Caesarea (port city) becomes Roman capitol of Palestine under Herod the Great
30-27 OCTAVIAN - Consul with Special Powers
29 BC Restoration of Temple Quirinus
27 BC Pantheon built for the first time under Agrippa
END OF THE REPUBLICAN PERIOD OF ANCIENT ROME
SOURCES: Penquin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome - Viking Press - 1995
Time line of NovaRoma - Ancient Rome Reborn website
Rand McNally HistoMap of World History
RogueClassicism, David Meadows www.atrium-media.com/rogueclassicism
"Information Please" on-line encyclopedia
The Battle Book - Bryan Perrett - 1992
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