CALCIUS A Shoe or Boot
CALCEARIUM Shoe Money - Allowence paid to soldiers to maintain and repair their Caligae
CALCEUS A Boot
CALIGAE Roman soldiers shoes or boots, actually a heavy sandal with ventilated uppers and with hobnails protecting bottom of soles. Consult "Caligae" on the "Equipment" Page for construction details.
CANABAE A settlement that arose outside a legionary fort. See also VICUS.
CANNABIS Hemp, The origin of the modern term "Canvas"
CAPITE CENSI In the middle Republic, citizens owning insufficient property to be eligible for military service
CAPSA Doctor's treatment bag, first aid kit
CAPSARIUS Doctor, Medic
CARCER Prison - from which we get our modern term "Incarceration" - or to "Incarcerate".
CARROBALLISTA Torsion powered crossbow like catapult mounted on a carriage
CASSIS Helmet made of metal.
CASTELLUM A Fort, most always constructed on a standard plan. The basic plan or layout for a Castellum was the same, whether in Britain, Gaul or Syria. Consult diagram on Legion History Page.
CASTRA / CASTORUM An encampment or garrison, most always constructed on a standard plan at the end of each days 20 to 24 mile march. The basic plan or layout for an overnight or permanent Castra was the same whether in Britain, Gaul or Syria. Consult diagram on Legion History Page.
CASTRA AESTIVA A fort or encampment set-up for use during summer or in a warm weather climate.
CASTRA HIBERNA A fort or encampment set-up for use during winter or in a cold weather climate.
CATAPHRACTUS / CATAPHRACTII Heavily armored auxiliary calveryman / Calvery units, which came into use during the early Third Century AD.
CATAPULTA Generic term for a mechanical, torsion-powered, missle casting siege engine. The term derives from the Greek word "Katapeltes", "shield piercer" (kata = through, pelta = small shield"). Catapulta were primarily for shooting arrow bolts, while the term Ballista generally refers to larger torsion powered stone casting engines. See Ballista - Catapulta Page - Onager - Weapons
CATTUS Moveable shed for protecting besieging troops. Also called a PLUTIUS or VINEA
CENTENARIA A smaller encampment used by a "Century" size unit of about 80-100 men
CENTURIA A "Century". A Roman Army unit composed originally of 100 men, but later, about 80 men in ten squads of eight men each, equivalent to a modern army "Company". See also "CONTUBERNIUM".
CENTURIO A "Centurion" in command of a Centuria or "Century" of 80 men, composed of eight, ten man squads. Earlier termed a CENTENARII, when a Century was 100 men of 10 squads of 10 men each.
CERARIUS Clerk who wrote with a wax (cera) tablet
CERVUS / CERVI A military palisade wall or berm which would normally be the last line of perimeter defense. See also Cippi, Fossa, Lilia and Stimuli as types of perimeter defenses.
CHEIROBALLISTRA A later and improved, metal framed version of the Ballista in use circa 100AD
CINGULUM Also called a "Balteas" or Military Belt. The belt or baldric from which the gladius or pugio is hung. These belts were frequently decorated to reflect the pride and affluence of the wearer. Consult the "Equipment" Page for construction details
CIPPI / CIPPUS A sharpened wooden stake / Five rows of bushes, planted several feet into the ground, which form with their pointy branches, a defensive field of brambles. Cippi is generally employed behind the Stimuli and Lilia and before the Fossa in a system of perimeter defenses known as a "Garden of Caesar", as used by Julius Caesar in his seige of Alesia in 52 BC.
CIVIS ROMANUS A Roman Citizen
CIVITATES A Town or Village of inhabitants native to the region or province
CLADES A defeat
CLASSIARIUS A military sailor, a legionary assigned to sea battle duty.
CLASSICUM Fanfare or battle signal played upon the trumpet
CLASSIS A fleet of ships. A social class or grade. A class of pupils.
CLAVARIUM Nail Money - Soldiers allowence to replace the sole nails (clavus) on their Caligae
CLAVUS Nail - Rivet - Rudder/Helm - Purple stripe worn on a tunic, wide for Senators and their sons, narrow for Equites.
CLIBANARIUS A soldier clad in "MAILE" type armor. See also CATAPHRACTARII
CLINATE To Turn and/or Face as directed
CLIPEUS Large Round Shield
COFINUS / Qualus Basket
COGNOMEN The third of the three names of a Roman Citizen. It was a nickname or personal name or honorary name; that name which distingushed an individual from all those relatives who might happen to share his or her praenomen and nomen. Consult the Roman Names Page for more details and a list of Cognomen.
COHORS / COHORTES A "Cohort" composed of 6 Centuria comprising 480 men or more, equivalent in size to a modern army "Battalion". Ten Corhortes formed a Legio or "Legion" of 4800 to 5000 men, equivalent in size to a modern army "Division". During the Empire Period, the first "Cohort" of a legion was frequently up to twice the size of the other cohorts, being increased in manpower with extra augmented "Century" units. The first cohort was usually assigned to administrative and supply duties.
COHORS ALARIA A Cohort of Auxiliary Soldiers
COHORS CLASSICA A Cohort assigned to sea battle duty
COHORS EQUITATA A Cohort that is part infantry and part cavalry
COHORS MILLARIA A Cohort of a thousand men
COHORS PEDITATA An Infantry Cohort
COHORS URBANA Cohort assigned to protect or police a city, town or village
COHORSTALIS Soldier in a Cohort
COLONIA Colony or Town of retired veteren legionaries, having full rights of Roman Citizenship
COMMANDER See PRAEFECTUS
COMES A friend of the Emperor, A late empire era commander
COMMENTARII A commander's report to the Senate or to a superior
COMMILITO /COMMILITONIS An army companion/s, fellow soldier/s
COMITATENSIS The mobile fighting units of the roman army as instituted by Diocletian and Constantine in the Late Empire Period. They split the army into two forces: the "Comitatensis", being able and ready to move when and where needed to quell trouble or uprising anywhere in the Empire within two to three weeks; and the "Limitanei" or troops assigned to guard the outer frontiers.
COMMODA Benefits received upon Discharge from the Army
CONGRESSIO A meeting of individuals
CONSUL One of two supreme magistrates elected annually as the highest ranking commander during the Republic era.
CONTUBERNALIS Military squad member or comrade / Soldier in training or a military cadet.
CONTUBERNIUM A squad of 4 to 10 soldiers, which shared a tent. Also the term applied to the tent shared by the soldiers. Ten Contubernium units compose a Centuria.
CONSISTE Halt - Stop - Stand
CONTUS A lance or pike
CONVENTUS Meeting / Assembly
COPIAE Army Units / Military Forces
CORNU / CORNUM A large coiled Horn or Trumpet carried over and around the shoulders primarily by military units on the march. See also "TUBA".
CORNICEN The person who carries the Cornu or trumpet for the Legion.
CORONA A crown awarded for military valor, having various names and made of differing materials representing a particular act of bravery or accomplishment.
CORONA-AUREA Crown of Gold awarded for single handed combat victory over an enemy and then securing the position until the end of the engagement.
CORONA-CIVICA Crown of oak leaves awarded for saving fellow soldiers and/or holding a battle position.
CORONA-GRAMINEA Crown of Grass awarded for a great act of valor such as saving a whole legion or cohort. The Roman Army "Congressional Medal of Honor".
CORONA-MURALIS Castellated gold crown for being first over the walls (muralis) of a city.
CORONA-NAVALIS Gold crown decorated with ship's prows, awarded for valor during a sea battle.
CORONA-VALLARIS Crown of gold for being first "over the rampart" (vallaris) into an enemy camp or position.
CORVUS The gangplank "boarding bridge" device used by the Romans to board enemy ships, thus permitting the roman legionaries to fight sea battles in the same manner and style as land engagements, in which they excelled, using their gladius and scutum. The Corvus, introduced by the Romans, was instrumental in the defeat of the Carthaginian navy during the First Punic War (264-241 BC).
CREPIDA / Solea Sandal
CRISTA Helmet Crest Consult "Helmets Crests" on the "Equipment" Page
CRISTA TRANSVERSA A helmet crest worn transverse (from side to side) by a "Centurion" to permit him to be more easily recognized in the ranks, and more importantly, on the field of battle.
CUCULLUS Hooded cloak worn by Auxiliaries in cold weather
CUNEUS Unit of irregular cavalry See NUMERUS
CURAM AGENS A soldier placed in charge of a unit or area
CURATOR VETERANORUM Men in a Legion who were serving beyond retirement age, in a separate unit under their own commander "Curator".
CUSTOS ARMORUM An armorer
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