CALCIUS                       A Shoe or Boot

CALCEARIUM             Shoe Money  -  Allowence paid to soldiers to maintain and repair their Caligae

CALCEUS                     A Boot

CALIGAE                      Roman soldier’s shoes or boots,  actually a heavy sandal with ventilated uppers and with hobnails protecting bottom of soles.   Consult   "Caligae"  on the  "Equipment"   Page for construction details.

CANABAE            A settlement that arose outside a legionary fort.    See also  VICUS.

CANNABIS                   Hemp, The origin of the modern term "Canvas"

CAPITE CENSI            In the middle Republic, citizens owning insufficient property to be eligible for military service  

CAPSA                           Doctor's treatment bag,  first aid kit

CAPSARIUS                  Doctor,   Medic

CARCER                       Prison - from which we get our modern term "Incarceration" - or to "Incarcerate". 

CARROBALLISTA     Torsion powered crossbow like catapult mounted on a carriage

CASEUS                         Cheese

CASSIS                          Helmet made of metal.

CASTELLUM               A Fort, most always constructed on a standard plan.  The basic plan or layout for a Castellum was the same, whether in Britain, Gaul or Syria.  Consult diagram on Legion History Page.

CASTRA / CASTORUM    An encampment or garrison,  most always constructed on a standard plan at the end of each day’s 20 to 24 mile march.      The basic plan or layout for an overnight or permanent Castra was the same whether in Britain, Gaul or Syria.  Consult diagram on Legion History Page.

CASTRA  AESTIVA          A fort or encampment set-up for use during summer or in a warm weather climate.

CASTRA  HIBERNA         A fort or encampment set-up for use during winter or in a cold weather climate.

CATAPHRACTUS / CATAPHRACTII   Heavily armored auxiliary calveryman   / Calvery units, which came into use during the early Third Century AD.

CATAPULTA               Generic term for a mechanical, torsion-powered,  missle casting  siege engine.  The term derives from the Greek word "Katapeltes", "shield piercer" (kata = through,  pelta = small shield").  Catapulta were primarily for shooting arrow bolts, while the term Ballista generally refers to larger torsion powered stone casting engines.  See  Ballista - Catapulta Page  -  Onager  -  Weapons 

CATTUS                       Moveable shed for protecting besieging troops.  Also called a PLUTIUS or VINEA 

CENTENARIA           A smaller encampment used by a "Century" size unit of about 80-100 men

CENTURIA                 A "Century".   A Roman Army unit composed originally of 100 men, but later, about 80 men in ten squads of eight men each,  equivalent to a modern army "Company".      See also "CONTUBERNIUM".

CENTURIO                 A "Centurion" in command of a Centuria or "Century" of 80 men, composed of eight, ten man squads.  Earlier termed a CENTENARII, when a Century was 100 men of 10 squads of 10 men each.

CERARIUS                  Clerk who wrote with a wax (cera) tablet

CERVESIA                 Beer

CERVUS / CERVI    A military palisade wall or berm which would normally be the last line of perimeter defense.  See also  Cippi,  FossaLilia and Stimuli  as types of perimeter defenses.

CHEIROBALLISTRA   A later and improved, metal framed version of the Ballista in use circa 100AD

CINGULUM          Also called a "Balteas" or Military Belt. The belt or baldric from which the gladius or pugio is hung. These belts were frequently decorated to reflect the pride and affluence of the wearer.   Consult the "Equipment"   Page for construction details

CIPPI / CIPPUS      A sharpened wooden stake  /    Five rows of bushes, planted several feet into the ground, which form with their pointy branches, a defensive field of brambles.  Cippi is generally employed behind the Stimuli and Lilia and before the Fossa   in a system of perimeter defenses known as a "Garden of Caesar", as used by Julius Caesar in his seige of Alesia in 52 BC. 

CIVIS  ROMANUS      A Roman Citizen

CIVITATES                    A Town or Village of inhabitants native to the region or province

CLADES                        A defeat

CLASSIARIUS             A military sailor,  a legionary assigned to sea battle duty.

CLASSICUM                Fanfare or battle signal played upon the trumpet

CLASSIS                      A fleet of ships.    A social class or grade.   A class of pupils.

CLAVARIUM               Nail Money   -  Soldiers allowence to replace the sole nails (clavus) on their Caligae

CLAVUS                       Nail - Rivet - Rudder/Helm - Purple stripe worn on a tunic, wide for Senators and their sons, narrow for Equites. 

CLIBANARIUS           A soldier clad in "MAILE" type armor.  See also   CATAPHRACTARII      

CLINATE                    To Turn and/or Face as directed

CLIPEUS                     Large Round Shield 

COCINA                      Kitchen

COFINUS / Qualus      Basket     

COGNOMEN            The third of the three names of a Roman Citizen.   It was a nickname or personal name or honorary name;  that name which distingushed an individual from all those relatives who might happen to share his or her praenomen and nomen.   Consult the Roman Names Page for more details and a list of Cognomen.

COHORS / COHORTES    A "Cohort" composed of 6 Centuria comprising 480 men or more,  equivalent in size to a modern army "Battalion".   Ten Corhortes formed a Legio or "Legion" of 4800 to 5000 men,  equivalent in size to a modern army "Division".     During the Empire Period,  the first "Cohort" of a legion was frequently up to twice the size of the other cohorts, being increased in manpower with extra augmented "Century" units.   The first cohort was usually assigned to administrative and supply duties.

COHORS ALARIA           A Cohort of Auxiliary Soldiers

COHORS CLASSICA       A Cohort assigned to sea battle duty

COHORS EQUITATA      A Cohort that is part infantry and part cavalry

COHORS MILLARIA      A Cohort of a thousand men

COHORS PEDITATA       An Infantry Cohort

COHORS URBANA          Cohort assigned to protect or police a city,  town or village

COHORSTALIS                 Soldier in a Cohort

COLONIA                            Colony or Town of retired veteren legionaries,  having full rights of Roman Citizenship  

COMMANDER                  See   PRAEFECTUS

COMES                              A friend of the Emperor,  A late empire era commander

COMMENTARII             A commander's report to the Senate or to a superior 

COMMILITO /COMMILITONIS      An army companion/s,  fellow soldier/s

COMITATENSIS        The mobile fighting units of the roman army as instituted by Diocletian and Constantine in the Late Empire Period.     They split the army into two forces:  the "Comitatensis",   being able and ready to move when and where needed to quell trouble or uprising anywhere in the Empire within two to three weeks;  and the "Limitanei" or troops assigned to guard the outer frontiers.

COMMODA                  Benefits received upon Discharge from the Army

CONGRESSIO               A meeting of individuals

CONSUL                        One of two supreme magistrates elected annually as the highest ranking commander during the Republic era.

CONTUBERNALIS     Military squad member or comrade / Soldier in training  or  a military cadet.

CONTUBERNIUM      A squad of 4 to 10 soldiers, which shared a tent.    Also the term applied to the tent shared by the soldiers.  Ten Contubernium units compose a Centuria.

CONSISTE                     Halt - Stop - Stand

CONTUS                         A lance or pike

CONVENTUS                 Meeting / Assembly

COPIAE                          Army Units  /  Military Forces  

CORNU / CORNUM     A large coiled Horn or Trumpet carried over and around the shoulders primarily by military units on the march.    See also   "TUBA".

CORNICEN                  The person who carries the Cornu or trumpet for the Legion.

CORONA                        A crown awarded for military valor,  having various names and made of differing materials representing a particular act of bravery or accomplishment.

CORONA-AUREA      Crown of Gold awarded for single handed combat victory over an enemy and then securing the position until the end of the engagement.

CORONA-CIVICA      Crown of oak leaves awarded for saving fellow soldiers and/or holding a battle position.

CORONA-GRAMINEA  Crown of Grass awarded for a great act of valor such as saving a whole legion or cohort.   The Roman Army "Congressional Medal of Honor".

CORONA-MURALIS    Castellated gold crown for being first over the walls (muralis) of a city.

CORONA-NAVALIS   Gold crown decorated with ship's prows, awarded  for valor during a sea battle.

CORONA-VALLARIS   Crown of gold for being first "over the rampart" (vallaris) into an enemy camp or position. 

CORVUS       The gangplank "boarding bridge" device used by the Romans to board enemy ships,  thus permitting the roman legionaries to fight sea battles in the same manner and style as land engagements, in which they excelled,  using their gladius and scutum.   The Corvus, introduced by the Romans,  was instrumental in the defeat of the Carthaginian navy during the First Punic War (264-241 BC).

CREPIDA  / Solea         Sandal

CRISTA                          Helmet Crest    Consult  "Helmets Crests"  on the   "Equipment"  Page

CRISTA  TRANSVERSA   A helmet crest worn transverse (from side to side) by a  "Centurion"  to permit him to be more easily recognized in the ranks,  and more importantly,  on the field of battle.   

CUCULLUS                     Hooded cloak worn by Auxiliaries in cold weather

CUNEUS                           Unit of irregular cavalry   See  NUMERUS

CURAM AGENS            A soldier placed in charge of a unit or area 

CURATOR VETERANORUM  Men in a Legion who were serving beyond retirement age, in a separate unit under their own commander "Curator".

CUSTOS  ARMORUM    An armorer

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